biography ; when the Symphony was performed he dedicated to it one of his longest and most genial effusions, 1 and each fresh piece was greeted with a hearty welcome as it fell from the press. One of Schumann's especial favourites was the Eb Trio ; he liked it even better than that in Bb, and has left a memorandum of his fondness in the opening of the Adagio of his Symphony in C, which is identical, in key and intervals, with that of Schubert's Andante. The enthusiasm of these prominent musicians, the repeated performances of the Symphony, and its publication by Breitkopfs (in Jan. 1850), naturally gave Schubert a strong hold on Leipzig, at that time the most active musical centre of Europe ; and after the founda- tion of the Conservatorium in 1843 many English and American students must have carried back the love of his romantic and tuneful music to their own countries.
Several performances of large works had taken place in Vienna since Schubert's death, chiefly through the exertions of Ferdinand, and of a certain Leitermayer, one of Franz's early friends ; such as the Eb Mass at the parish church of Maria Trost on Nov. 15, 1829 ; Miriam, with Lachner's orchestration, at a Gesellschaft Concert in 1830 ; two new overtures in 1833 ; an over- ture in E, the Chorus of Spirits from Rosamunde, the Grosses Halleluja, etc., early in 1835, an( l four large concerted pieces from Fierabras later in the year ; an overture in D ; the finale of the last Symphony ; a march and chorus, and an air and chorus, from Fierabras, in April 1836; another new overture, and several new compositions from the 'Remains, 'in the winter of 1837-8. As far as can be judged by the silence of the Vienna newspapers these passed almost unnoticed. Even the competi- tion with North Germany failed to produce the effect which might have been expected. It did indeed excite the Viennese to one effort. On the 15th of the December following the production of the Symphony at Leipzig its performance was at- tempted at Vienna, but though the whole work was announced, 2 such had been the difficulties at rehearsal that the first two movements alone were given, and they were only carried off by the interpolation of an air from ' Lucia ' between them.
But symphonies and symphonic works can hardly be expected to float rapidly; songs are more buoyant, and Schubert's songs soon began to make their way outside, as they had long since done in his native place. Wherever they once penetrated their success was certain. In Paris, where spirit, melody, and romance are the certain criterions of success, and where nothing dull or obscure is tolerated, they were introduced by Nourrit, and were so much liked as actually to find a transient place in the programmes of the
��1 ' Ges. Schriften,' HI. 195. Schumann's expressions leave no doubt that the Symphony in C was in Ferdinand's possession at the time of his visit. This and many others of his articles on Schubert hare been translated Into English by Miss M. E. von Glehn. and Mrs. Kltter.
2 The MS. parts in the possession of the Musik Verein show the most cruel cuts, possibly with a view to this performance. In the Finale, one of the most essential and effective sections of the move- Eimit is clean expunged.
��Concerts of the Conservatoire, the stronghold of musical Toryism. 3 The first French collection was published in 1 834, by Richault, with trans- lation by Be'langer. It contained 6 songs Die Post, Standchen, Am Meer, Das Fischermadchen, Der Tod und das Madchen, and Schlummer- lied. The Erl King and others followed. A larger collection, with translation by Emil Deschamps, was issued by Brandus in 1 838 or 39. It is entitled Collection des Lieder de Franz Schubert,' and contains 16 La jeune religieuse; Marguerite; Le roi des aulnes ; La rose ; La se're'Dade ; La poste; A ve Maria; La cloche des agonisants; La jeune fille et la mort; Rosemonde; Les plain tea de la jeune fille; Adieu; Les astres; La jeune mere; La berceuse; Eloge des larmes. 4 Except that one Adieu 8 is spurious, the selection does great credit to Parisian taste. This led the way to the ' Quarante melodies de Schubert ' of Richault, Launer, etc., a thin 8vo. volume, to which many an English amateur is indebted for his first acquaintance with these treasures of life. By 1845 Richault had published as many as 150 with French words.
Some of the chamber music also soon obtained a certain popularity in Paris, through the playing of Tilmant, Urhan, and Alkan, and later of Alard and Franchomme. The Trio in Bb, issued by Richault in 1838, was the first instrumental work of Schubert's published in France. There is a 'Collection complete* of the solo PF. works, published by Richault in 8vo., containing the Fantaisie (op. 15), 10 sonatas, the two Russian marches, Impromptus, Momens musicals, 5 single pieces, and 9 sets of dances. Liszt and Heller kept the flame alive by their transcriptions of the songs and waltzes. But beyond this the French hardly know more of Schubert now than they did then ; none of his large works have be- come popular with them. Habeneck attempted to rehearse the Symphony in C (No. 10) in 1842, but the band refused to go beyond the first movement, and Schubert's name up to this date (1881) appears in the programmes of the Con- certs of the Conservatoire attached to three songs only. M. Pasdeloup has introduced the Symphony in C and the fragments of that in B minor, but they have taken no hold on the Parisian amateurs.
Liszt's devotion to Schubert has been great and unceasing. We have already mentioned his production of Alfonso and Estrella at Weimar in 1854, but it is right to give a list of his transcriptions, which have done a very great deal to introduce Schubert into many quarters where his compositions would otherwise have been a sealed book. His first transcription
'La Jeune Rellgleuse* and 'Le roi des Aulnes' were sung by Nourrit, at the Concert* of Jan. 18 and April 26, 1835, respectively the latter with orchestral accompaniment. On March 20, 1836, Mar- gui5rite was sung by Mile. Falcon, and there the list stops. Schubert's name has never again appeared in these programmes, to any piece, vocal or instrumental.
< This list is copied from the Paris correspondence of the A.M. Z., 1839. p. 394.
This song is made up of phrases from Schubert's songs, and will probably always be attributed to him. It stands even In Pauer s edition. But It is by A. H. von Weyrauch, who published it himself In 1824. See Nottebohm's Catalogue, p. 254.