Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 3.djvu/446

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��Score of ' II Don Giovanni,' the Trombone Parts of the last Finale are printed at the end of the volume, with the necessary direction, Tromboni se trovano al Fine.

IV. The ORGAN, HARPSICHORD, or PIANOFORTE SCORE, is a Vocal Score, with an Accompaniment for the Organ, Harpsichord, or Pianoforte, added, on one or two Staves beneath it. Among the earliest and most interesting examples of this kind of Score ever printed in England, are Har- rison's editions of Handel's * Messiah,' ' Dettingen Te Deum,' ' Ode for S. Csecilia's Day,' ' Acis and Galatea,' and other like works, with Harpsichord Accompaniment. In these, and in the original editions of Boyce's Cathedral Music, Croft's An- thems, and other similar publications, the Organ or Harpsichord Part is given in the form of a Figured Bass only, and printed on a single Stave. In modern Organ and Pianoforte Scores, the Accompaniment is always printed on two Staves. In all cases, the Vocal Parts are arranged in one of the forms given on page 429.

V. The COMPRESSED SCORE is an arrangement of Vocal Part-Music, on two Staves, one of which presents the Soprano and Alto Parts, written in the Treble clef, while the other exhibits the Tenor and Bass, in the Bass Clef. Instrumental Music may be, and sometimes is, compressed in the same way ; especially in the case of Stringed Quartets: but it is indispensable that every note of the original Composition shall appear in its proper place, whether it can be played upon a Keyed Instrument or not ; otherwise, the transcription degenerates into a mere ' arrange- ment.' A familiar example of the Compressed Score will be found in 'Hymns Ancient and Modern.'

VI. The term SHORT SCORE is indiscriminately applied to Organ and Pianoforte Scores of works originally written with Orchestral Accompani- ments ; to Compressed Scores ; and to maimed transcriptions, in which the leading Parts only are given in extenso. Among these latter may be classed the early editions of Handel's Songs, and an enormous number of ' Vauxhall Songs,' by Hook, Storace, Dibdin, and other popular Com- posers of the latter half of the i8th century. In these now scarce old copies, printed on coarse blue paper, and engraved in the roughest possible style, the Violin Parts of the Symphonies are filled in, wherever there is room for them, on the Stave belonging to the Voice, the lower Stave being occupied by a Figured Bass. As the number of popular Songs so printed, a hundred years ago, was countless, we must suppose that the average standard of popular musical education, in the last century, was very much higher than it is now ; for it is certain that not one amateur out of five hundred would be able to play from such copies, at the present day. [W.S.R.]

SCORE, ARRANGING FROM. An Or- chestral Composition is said to be 'arranged from the Score,' when its principal features are adapted, by a judicious process of condensation, to the capabilities of the Organ, Pianoforte, or any other Keyed or Solo Instrument.


The successful performance of this operation demands a thorough knowledge of the laws of Harmony and Composition ; and the principles and practice of Instrumentation ; x a perfect com- mand of the particular Instrument for which the arrangement is intended; sound judgment, and long experience. Were it possible to transfer Orchestral passages to the keyboard notatim, the task of arranging would be a very simple one ; but it would be a great mistake to suppose that the most literal transcription from the Score is invariably the best, or the most effective one. Many complicated passages need extensive sim- plification, in order to 'bring them within the compass even of four hands upon the Pianoforte ; while the execution of many Violin passages is absolutely impossible upon Keyed Instruments. Liszt himself could not play the following pas- sage from the Overture to 'Der Freischiitz/ at anything like the required pace :

���This passage has been 'arranged* in several different ways, two of which we subjoin. The first, at (a), was sanctioned by Weber himself, in an arrangement published in 'The Harmo- nicon,' No. xxi. Sept. 1824. The second, at (6), is the inspiration of a later arranger, who, in the hope of attaining brilliancy, has distorted the rhythm of the passage, beyond all possibility of recognition, at the expense of an entire bar.

���Great ingenuity on the part of the arranger is frequently demanded, in the case of passages in which several solo instruments are employed simultaneously ; particularly should any of the parts be dbbligato. Long-sustained notes also frequently need very careful management ; and there is often great difficulty in the simplifica- tion of very elaborate accompaniments, which, if arranged as they stand in the score would pre- sent unconquerable difficulties to the performer, while, if injudiciously adapted to ^the keyboard they either weaken the harmony irreparably or produce an effect quite different from that in- tended by the composer. Again, it is sometimes all but impossible to give a literal rendering of passages the complications of which are' in- creased by the crossing of the Parts ; as in the following phrase from the Overture to ' Die Zau- berflote ' :

i See ORCHESTRATION, vol. ii. pp. 567-578.

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