��(composed about 1640) requiring all the qualifica-
�� ��tions of a fine singer voice (tenore robusto, hi baritone, or mezzo-soprano), declamatory power, pathos, and agility. Another, by Carissimi, ' Vit- toria,' demands vigorous singing. The latter is well-known, and both are published amongst 'Les Gloires de 1'Italie.' The dramatic force exacted by a just rendering of the kind of music named, and which had been naturally brought about by the creation of the recitative, by degrees gave place to a more mechanical style of singing. The constant recitative became monotonous, and rhythmical airs, more and more formal, came into vogue, their formality being afterwards relieved by set passages or divisions. The singers above referred to brought their vocalisation to such a grade of perfection and exactness that they must have Bung really with the precision of an instrument. This wonderful power of exact execution culmin- ated in Porpora's famous pupils, Farinelli and Caffarelli. [See those names.] It is said that Porpora kept Caffarelli for five or six years to one page of exercises and nothing else, and at the end of the time told him he was the greatest singer in Europe. This is of course an exaggera- tion, since such taste and style as those of Caffa- relli cannot be formed by a page of exercises ; but it embodies the principle of slow patient \vork, and of gradual development, instead of the forcing of all the powers. Few are blest with naturally perfect voices, and it is even probable that Porpora did prescribe to Caffarelli a certain set of exercises to be used daily. It is the con- stant practice of certain passages that overcomes defects. The passages (some examples of which are here given) in much of the music of that date, especially that of Porpora, are really in- strumental passages, strongly resembling the vocalizzi of the period [see SOLFEGGIO], and possessing but little interest beyond the surprise that their exact performance would create.
��Artaxcrxet. Allegro assai. f\ tr
��sa ancor. Adriano.