��of ' La Regata Veneziana,' where the rhythmical figure in the left hand represents the n -irular movement of oars, whilst the right hand has continuous legato passages in double notes.
��' Co pasaa la Regata.' Allegretto Agitato.
��PP come tin mormorio
��legato tino alia fine
���Very clever accompaniments are also met with in the compositions of Marco Sala, Faccio, Boz- zano, Coronaro, and Smareglia. The last two have paid especial attention to the words of their songs. But pre-eminent in every respect above other living writers of songs in Italy is a young Florentine, Benedetto lunck by name. For beauty of melody, skilful accompaniment, originality and grace, a very high place would be assigned in any country to lunck' s publica- tion 'La Simona,' which contains twelve songs for soprano and tenor. And such capacities as his encourage the hope that the standard of Ita- lian songs may yet be raised by careful study to that higher level of thought and conception which has been reached in other lands.
For further information on the Troubadours and the Italian Song see
- Leben und Werke der Troubadours ' ; Friedrich Diets.
4 Ueber die Lais ' ; Ferdinand Wolffi
'The Troubadours'; F. Hueffer.
' Storia e Eagione ' ; H Quadrio.
' Le Bivoluzioni del teatro musicale Italiano'; Arteaga.
' Histoire de la Musique en Italie '; Orloff.
Dizionaria e Bibliografia della Musica'; Lichtenthal. 'Schicksale und Beschaffenheit dea weltlichen Ge-
'Cenno storico sulla scuola musicale di Napoli'; Florimo.
'Hiatoire de la Musique moderne' ; Marcillac.
'Italienische Tondichter 1 ; Naumann.
'Geschichte derMusik'; Ambros.
The writer also owes her warmest thanks to Mr. G. Mazzucato for information given to her.
What was done for music by the Troubadours of Provence and the 'Trouveres' of Northern France, has been briefly described above. Their development of the Song in France was carried further by the eminent Chansonniers ' of the 1 3th century, Adam de la Hale and Guillaume Machaud. The former, surnamed ' le Bossu
��d' Arras,' was born in 1240; the latter in 1^285 ; and they may be regarded as connecting links between the 'Trouveres' and the learned musicians of later times. Like the 'Trouveres,' they invented both the words and the moludi,-* of their songs, but they also attempted to write in the polyphonic forms of vocal composition ; and imperfect as these attempts were, they marked a step in advance of the 'Trouveres.' To Adam de la Hale and Machaud the Chanson owes much. Not only can the germ of the future Vaudeville be detected in Adam de la Halo's pastorale 'Robin et Marion,' but its chan- sons also are strictly similar in structure and character to those of the present day. In ancient and modern chansons alike, we find a strongly marked rhythm, easy intervals, repetition of one melodic phrase, paucity of notes, and extreme simplicity of general plan. Though nearly six hundred years have passed since 'Robin et Marion' was written, the song 'Robin m'aime' is still sung in Hennegau. 1
�� � �1 i t t? -
�I m'alme Bo
�<sL+* 1 bins m'a Fine
�1 hj Ro-bins m'a
�. * * 1 ' J de - man - de - e
�& \ J H
�J J N gJ-
m'a ca - la - co -
i H i 1
�^ "J 1 J ^ te - le dea car -
�te le bonne et belle sous - kra nl - et Dal Sefjno al Fine.
� � � ��chain - tu - re - le a leur Ira.
In the year 1747' two volumes of French and Latin poems, with descriptions of the music to which some of them were set, were discovered by Count de Caylus in a royal library of France, both words and music being the work of Guil- laume de Machaud, ' poet and musician.' The subjects of the poems are very varied, and among them are a great number of lais, virelais, ballades, and rondcaux, some for a single voice, and others in four parts. And as in these full pieces the words are placed under the tenor part only, it may be inferred that this was the principal melody. The majority are in Old French, and the few Latin poems of the collection are chiefly motets, and for a single voice. Machaud seems to have been most renowned for his graceful and rhythmical ballettes, or dance-songs, which as a rule are written in triple or compound time. It should be noted that in the songs of this early period the melody is never protracted and drawn
i This example Is taken from MM. Mathts Lussj's and Ernoit David's Histoire de la Notation Musicale.' p. 106.
- Burney. History of Music, vol. ii. p. 803. These volumes are still preserved in the Bibliothiyue KationaU.