��the voice, as is usually the case. In connection with this may be mentioned the writer's experience of a tenor, that is to say a voice of decided tenor
��tone, with a compass of :
��a limited bass only, thus showing how the word ' tenor' has come to express quality quite as much as compass. Roger (French), another celebrity, and a cultivated man, overtaxed his powers, as many others have done, and shortened his active artistic career. Campanini is a strong tenore di mezzo carattere. This class of tenor can on oc- casions take parti di fwza or di grazia.
If the Germans would only be so good as to cultivate more thoroughly the art of vocalisation, we should have from them many fine tenori di forza, with voices like that of Vogel.
A tenore di grazia of modern times must not be passed without special mention. Italo Gardoni possessed what might be called only a moderate voice, but so well, so easily and naturally produced, that it was heard almost to the same advantage in a theatre as in a room. This was especially noticeable when he sang the part of Florestan, in Fidelio,' at Covent Garden, after an absence of some duration from the stage. The unaffected grace of his style rendered him as perfect a model for vocal artists as could well be found. Giuglini was another tenore di grazia, with more actual power than Gardoni. Had it not been for a certain mawkishness which after a time made itself felt, he might have been classed amongst the tenori di mezzo carattere. In this country Braham and Sims Reeves have their place as historical tenori, and Edward Lloyd, with not so large a voice as either of these, will leave behind him a considerable repu- tation as an artist.
Of the tenore leggiero, a voice that can generally execute fioritura with facility, it is not easy to point out a good example. The light tenor, sometimes called tenore contrallino t has usually a somewhat extended register of open notes, and if the singer is not seen, it is quite possible to imagine that one is hearing a female contralto. The converse of this is the case when a so-called female tenor sings. One of these, Signora Mela, appeared at concerts in London in the year 1868. A favourite manifestation of her powers was the tenor part in Rossini's Terzetto buffo ' Pappataci.' Barlani-Dini is another female tenor, singing at present in Italy. These exhibitions are, however, decidedly inartistic and inelegant, and may easily become repulsive. A list of tenor singers will be found in the article SINGING. [See vol. iii. p. 5 1 1 .]
Tenor is also the English name of the viola. [See TENOR VIOLIN.] The second of the usual three trombones in a full orchestra is a tenor instrument both in compass and clef.
The Tenor Bell is the lowest in a peal of bells, and is possibly so called because it is the bell u pon which the ringers hold or rest. The Tenor- drum (without snares) is between the ordinary side-drum and the bass-drum, and, worn as a side drum, is used in foot-regiments for rolls.
There are various opinions as to the advisa- bility of continuing, or not, the use of the tenor clef. There is something to be said on both sides. It undoubtedly expresses a positive position in the musical scale; and the power to read it, and the other G clef, is essential to all musicians who have to play from the music printed for choirs and for orchestra up to the present day. But as a question of general utility a simplification in the means of expressing mu- sical ideas can scarcely be other than a benefit, else why not continue the use of all the seven clefs ? The fact that the compass of the male voice is, in round terms, an octave lower than the female (though from the point of view of mechanism the one is by no means a mere re-production of the other), renders it very easy, indeed almost natural, for a male voice to sing music in the treble clef an octave below its actual pitch, or musical position in the scale, and as a matter of fact, no difficulty is found in so doing. In violoncello or bassoon-music the change from bass to tenor clef is made on ac- count of the number of ledger lines that must be used for remaining in the lower clef. This objection does not exist in expressing tenor music in the treble clef. On the contrary, if it exists at all it is against the tenor. A kind of com- promise is made by Mr. Otto Goldschmidt in the ' Bach Choir Magazine ' (Novello), where a A -A double soprano clef is used for the ^y^g tenor part. This method was proposed j T by Gr^try, Essai s. la musique, v. 200.
While on the subject of clefs, passing reference may be made to Neukomm's somewhat erratic idea of putting the whole of the tenor part in his edition of Haydn's ' Creation ' in the bass clef. It was an attempt to make the desired simplifi- cation, and at the same time denote the actual pitch of the voice. [H. C. D.]
TENOROON, a name sometimes given to the Tenor Bassoon or Alto Fagotto in F. It is obviously a modification of the word Bassoon, for which little authority can be found. The identity of this instrument with the Oboe di Caccia of Bach has already been adverted to, and the error of assigning parts written for it by that composer, Beethoven, and others, to the Corno Inglese or Alto Oboe in the same key has been corrected. At the present time it has entirely gone out of use. A fine specimen, now in the writer's possession, was until lately in the boys' band at the Foundling Hospital: supposed to be intended, from its smaller size, for the diminutive hands of young players.
Its tone is characteristic, somewhat more reedy than that of the Bassoon. The word was used by Gauntlett for the compass of a stop. [W.H.S.]
TENOR VIOLIN (ALTO, CONTRALTO, QUINTE, TAILLB, BRATSOHE, VIOLA, etc.) A violin usually about one-seventh larger in its general dimen- sions than the ordinary violin, and having its compass a fifth lower, or an octave above the violoncello. As its name implies, it corresponds in the string quartet to the tenor voice in the