4 3 -
��The case of Passing-Notes in the Bass is very different. They appear, of course, in the Continue itself ; and the fact that they really are Passing- Notes, and are, therefore, not intended to bear in- dependent Harmonies, is sufficiently proved by a system of horizontal lines indicating the con- tinuance of a Chord previously figured ; as in Example 6, in the first three bars of which the Triad is figured in full, because its intervals are continued on the three succeeding Bass-Notes.
���But in no case is the employment of horizontal lines more useful than in that of the Organ Point, which it would often be very difficult to express clearly without their aid. Example 7 shows the most convenient way of figuring complicated Sus- pensions upon a sustained Bass-Note.
���In the Inverted Pedal-Point, the lines are still more valuable, as a means of indicating the con- tinuance of the sustained note in an upper Part ;
��as in Example 8, in which the Figure 8 marks the beginning of the C, which, sustained in the Tenor Part, forms the Inverted Pedal, while the hori- zontal line indicates its continuance to the end of
�� ��When, in the course of a complicated Move- ment, it becomes necessary to indicate that a cer- tain phrase such as the well-known Canto-Fermo in the 'Hallelujah Chorus' is to be delivered in Unison, or, atmost,only doubled in the Octave the passage is marked Tasto Solo, or, T. S. i. e. ' with a single touch' (= key). 1 When the Sub- ject of a Fugue appears, for the first time, in the Bass, this sign is indispensable. When it first appears in an upper Part, the Bass Clef gives place to the Treble, Soprano, Alto, or Tenor, as the case may be, and the passage is written in single Notes, exactly as it is to be played. In both these cases it is usual also to insert the first few Notes of the Answer, as a guide to the Ac- companyist, who only begins to introduce full Chords when the figures are resumed. In any case, when the Bass Voices are silent, the lowest of the upper Parts is given in the Thoroughbass, either with or without Figures, in accordance with the law which regards the lowest sound as the real Bass of the Harmony, even though it may be sung by a Soprano Voice. An instance of this kind is shown in Example 9.
, J I i,l HANDEL.
�� �� ��We shall now present the reader with a general example, serving as a practical application of the rules we have collected together for his guidance ; selecting, for this purpose, the concluding bars of the Chorus, 'All we like sheep,' from Handel's ' Messiah.'
��i As lately as the last century, the keys of the Organ and Harpil- chord were called ' Touches ' by English writers.