Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 4.djvu/136

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��It is possible to invent more forms of Simple Triple Time (as T ^, for instance), and some very modern Composers have done so ; but the cases in which they can be made really useful are exceedingly rare.

IV. Compound Triple Time (Germ. Zu&ammen- gesetzte UngeradetaJct) is derived from the simple form, on precisely the same principle as that already described with reference to Common Time. Its chief forms are

ic. Nine-four Time, or Nine Crotchet Time (Ital. Tempo di Nonupla maggiore ; Germ. Neun- vierteltakt} contains three Beats in the Bar, each represented by a dotted Minim or its equiva- lent, three Crotchets.

A Ax^^X. X'^^N, S 1 **^

��20. Nine-eight Time, or Nine Quaver Time (Ital. Tempo di Nonupla minore ; Germ. Neun- achteltakt) contains three Beats in a Bar, each represented by a dotted Crotchet or its equiva- lent, three Quavers. A A

��3 c. Nine-sixteen Time, or Nine Semiquaver Time (Germ. Neunsecliszehntheiltakf), contains three Beats in the Bar, each represented by a dotted Quaver or its equivalent, three Semi- quavers.

A A _ __

��It is possible to invent new forms of Compound Triple Time (as ) ; but it would be difficult to find cases in which such a proceeding would be justifiable on the plea of real necessity.

V. In addition to the universally recognised forms of Rhythm here described, Composers have invented certain anomalous measures which call for separate notice: and first among them we must mention that rarely used but by no means unimportant species known as QUINTUPLE Time (J or g), with five Beats in the Bar, each Beat being represented either by a Crotchet or a Quaver as the case may be. As the peculiarities of this rhythmic form have already been fully described, 1 we shall content ourselves by quoting, in addition to the examples given in vol. iii. p. 6 1, one beautiful instance of its use by Brahms, who, in his 'Variations on a Hungarian Air,' Op. 21, No. 2, has fulfilled all the most necessary condi- tions, by writing throughout in alternate Bars of Simple Common and Simple Triple Time, under a double Time-Signature at the beginning of the Movement.

There seems no possible reason why a Com- poser, visited by an inspiration in that direction, should not write an Air in Septuple Time, with See QUINTUPLE TIME.


seven beats in a bar. The only condition need- ful to ensure success in such a case is, that the inspiration must come first, and prove of suffi- cient value to justify the use of an anomalous Measure for its expression. An attempt to write in Septuple Time, for its own sake, must inevitably result in an ignoble failure. The chief mechanical difficulty in the employ- ment of such a Measure would lie in the un- certain position of its Accents, which would not be governed by any definite rule, but must depend, almost entirely, upon the character of the given Melody, and might indeed be so varied as to give rise to several different species of Septuple Time a a very serious objection, for, after all, it is by the position of its Accents that every species of Time must be governed. 3 It was for this reason that, at the beginning of this article, we insisted upon the necessity for measur- ing the capacity of the Bar, not by the number of the notes it contained, but by that of its Beats : for it is upon the Beats that the Accents fall ; and it is only in obedience to the position of the Beats that the notes receive them. Now it is a law that no two Accents that is to say, no two of the greater Accents by which the Rhythm of the Bar is regulated, without reference to the subordinate stress which ex- presses the division of the notes into groups no two of these greater Accents, we say, can possibly fall on two consecutive Beats; any more than the strong Accent, called by Grammarians the ' Tone,' can fall on two consecutive syllables in a word. The first Accent in the Bar marked thus ( A ) in our examples, corresponds in Music with what is technically called the * Tone-syllable' of a word. Where there are two Accents in the Bar, the second, marked thus, ( A ), is of much less importance. It is only by remembering this, that we can understand the difference between the Time called 'Alia Cappella,' with two Minim Beats in the Bar, and ^, with four Crotchet Beats : for the value of the contents of the Bar, in notes, is exactly the same, in both cases ; and in both cases, each Beat is divisible by 2, indefinitely. The only difference, therefore, lies in the distri- bution of the Accents; and this difference is entirely independent of the pace at which the Bar may be taken.


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  • See the remarks on an analogous uncertainty in Quintuple Time.

Vol. 111. p. 61 6.

s The reader will bear In mind that we are here speaking of Accent, pur et timple, and not of emphasis. A note may be em- phasised, in any part of the Bar ; but the quiet dwelling upon It which constitutes true Accent Accent analogous to that used In speaking-can only take place on the accented Beat, the position of which is Invariable. Henceit follows that the most strongly accented notes in a given passage may also be the softest. In all questions concerning Rhythm, a clear understanding of the difference between Accent-produced by quietly dwelling on a note-and Emphasis- produced by forcing it, is of the utmost Importance.

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