��Hungary, and on Haydn's undertaking the Vice- Capellmeistership in 1761, was at once promoted by him to be first violin. He was afterwards leader, and director of the chamber-music, with a largely increased salary. Prince Nicholas (suc- cessor to Paul Anton) left him a pension in 1 790 but Tomasini remained in the service till his death, April 25, 1808. He was on the most in- timate terms with Haydn, who wrote all his quartets with a view to Tomasini's playing, and remarked to him, * Nobody plays my quartets so much to my satisfaction as you do.' He only once appeared in public in Vienna, at a concert of the Tonkiinstler-Societat (1775), of which he had been a member from its foundation in 1771. In all probability Haydn gave him instruction in composition. He published violin-concertos, quar- tets, duos, concertants (dedicated to Haydn), etc. For the Prince he wrote ' 24 Divertimenti per il Paridon (barytone), violino, e violoncello,' now in the archives of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna. A few of Haydn's violin-concertos were written expressly for Tomasini (' fatto per il Luigi'). Besides two daughters, who sang in the church and opera at Eisenstadt, Tomasini had two talented sons. The eldest,
LUIGI, born 1779, a< ; Esterhaz, an excellent violinist, was received into the chapel in 1796, dismissed several times for incorrigible levity, but as often readmitted at Haydn's request. The latter speaks of his 'rare genius,' and so did Hummel. He played in Vienna in 1796 and 1801 at the Tonkiinstler-Societat, and in 1806 at the Augarten concerts. In 1808 he had to fly, for having married, without the Prince's leave, Sophie Groll, a singer in the chapel, but he secured an appointment as Concertmeister to the Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. In 1812 he and his wife gave a concert in Berlin, when Luigi played Beethoven's concerto, and his wife, a pupil of Righini's, was much applauded. In 1814 he gave a concert in the court theatre in Vienna, after which he wholly disappears. His brother,
ANTON, born 1775 at Eisenstadt, played in the chapel as an amateur from 1791 to 96, when he became a regular member. His instrument was the viola. He married the daughter of a Polish General in 1803, in which year he also became a member of the Tonkiinstler-Societat. He resem- bled his brother both in talent and disposition, and, like him, was several times dismissed, and taken on again with increased salary. In 1820 he became leader of the band, and died at Eisen- gtadt June 12, 1824. [C.F.P.]
TOMKINS. A family which, in the i6th and 1 7th centuries, produced many good musicians.
Rev. THOMAS TOMKINS was chanter and minor canon of Gloucester Cathedral in the latter part of the 1 6th century. He contributed to 'The Triumphes of Oriana,' 1600, the madrigal 'The faunes and satirs tripping/ commonly attributed to his more celebrated son and namesake.
JOHN TOMKINS, Mus. Bac., one of his sons, was probably a chorister of Gloucester Cathedral. He afterwards became a scholar of King's College, Cambridge, of which in 1606 he was appointed
organist. He resigned in 162 2 upon being chosen organist of St. Paul's Cathedral. In 1625 he was appointed gentleman extraordinary of the Chapel Royal ' for the next place of an organist there,' and in 1625 became Gospeller. He died Sept. 27, 1638, and was buried at St. Paul's. Some anthems by him are contained in Barnard's MS. collection. His son, ROBERT, was in 1641 one of the King's musicians.
THOMAS TOMKINS, Mus. Bac., another son of Thomas, was a pupil of Byrd, and graduated at Oxford, July n, 1607. He soon afterwards be- came organist of Worcester Cathedral. On Aug. 2, 1621, he was sworn in as one of the organists of the Chapel Royal upon the death of Edmond Hooper. In 1622 he published ' Songs of 3, 4, 5 and 6 parts/ containing 28 madrigals and an- thems of a high degree of excellence. He died in June, 1656, and was buried at Martin Hasa- ingtree, Worcestershire. A collection of his church music, comprising 5 services and 68 anthems, was published in 1664 under the title of 'Musica Deo Sacra & Ecclesiae Anglicanae; or, Musick dedicated to the Honor and Service of God, and to the Use of Cathedral and other Churches of England, especially to the Chappel Royal of King Charles the First.' A second im- pression appeared in 1668.
Many MSS. of his music are found in the Tudway collection, at Ely, Ch. Ch. Oxford, etc. At St. John's Coll. Oxford, there is a volume written by him and Este, containing, among other remarkable things, the bass part of a Service by Tallis for 5 voices, otherwise unknown. [See TALLIS, vol. iv. p. 54 a.]
GILES TOMKINS, a third son, succeeded his brother, John, as organist of King's College, Cambridge, in 1622. He afterwards became organist of Salisbury Cathedral, which appoint- ment he held at the time of his death in 1668.
NATHANIEL TOMKINS, born 1584, son of a gen- tleman of Northampton, chorister of Magdalen College, Oxford, from 1596 to 1604, clerk there from 1604 to 1606, and usher of the College School from 1606 to 1610, and ABB AH AM TOM- KINS, chorister of the same College from 1611 to 1617, were probably members of another branch of the same family. [W. H. H.]
TONAL FUGUE (Fr. Fugue du Ton ; Germ. Einfache Fuge, Fuge des Tones}. A form of Fugue, in which the Answer (Comes), instead of following the Subject (Dux) exactly, Interval for Interval, sacrifices the closeness of its Imita- tion to a more important necessity that of exact conformity with the organic constitution of the Mode in which it is written ; in other words, to the Tonality of its Scale. [See SUBJECT.]
This definition, however, though sufficient to distinguish a Tonal Fugue from a Real one of the same period and form, gives no idea what- ever of the sweeping revolution which followed the substitution of the later for the earlier method. A technical history of this revolution, though giving no more than a sketch of the phases through which it passed, between the death of Palestrina and the maturity of Handel