��rendering of Bach's Solos, of Beethoven's Con- certo and Quartets, he has absolutely no rival, and it seems impossible he should ever be sur- passed in these highest tasks of the violinist, in which both his conception and execution appear to fulfil the ideal of the composer. With Ernst, and still more with Joachim, an element derived from the national Hungarian, and the Hungarian gipsy music has come into promi- nence. Haydn, and still more Schubert, made frequent use of its peculiar melodic progressions and characteristic rhythms. [See vol. ii. p. 197.] It is fiddle-music par excellence, and if introduced into serious music with such judgment and dis- cretion as in Joachim's Hungarian Concerto and transcriptions of Brahms's Hungarian Dances, it is not only artistically legitimate and musically interesting, but opens a field for telling and beautiful violin-effects. It evinces the same desire to make the resources of popular national music available for artistic purposes, which showed itself in Chopin's idealisations of the Polish element, and of late in Sarasate's adapta- tions of Spanish melodies and dances. Joachim has trained a large number of excellent violinists. Among the best of his pupils are : J. Ludwig, well-known as teacher and quartet- player in London, Hanflein (Hanover), Walde- mar Meyer, Hollander (Cologne), Kruse (Berlin), Kotek (Berlin), Schnitzler (Rotterdam), Hess (Frankfort), Petri (Leipzig), Halir (Mannheim), Schiever (Liverpool), Gompertz (London), T. Nachez, and many more.
In addition to Boehm's pupils, the Vienna school produced a number of eminent violinists, such as JOSEPH HELLMESBERGER, a pupil of his father, who for a great many years has been the leading violinist at Vienna, and enjoys a special reputation for quartet- playing ; LEOPOLD AUER (born 1845), pupil of Dont, jun., and per- former of the first rank, and others. LEOPOLD JANSA (1796-1875) deserves to be specially men- tioned as the teacher of the most eminent lady- violinist of the present day, WILMA NORMANN- NERUDA (born 1840). Madame Neruda, pos- sessing a highly-finished technique, is not merely a brilliant soloist, but a thorough musi- cian, versed in the whole range of musical literature, and an admirable quartet-player. It is, no doubt, largely owing to her immense success and popularity that of late years violin-playing has been much taken up by ladies, but, if we except Teresina Tua, with but transient success. Lady amateur violinists in London, as in Boston and New York, at the present time are counted by hundreds.
The school of Prague started by F. W. PIXIS (1786-1842), a pupil of Franzlat Mannheim, and of Viotti has produced several violinists of note : J. W. KALLIWODA (1801-1866), M. MILDNER (1812-1865), who succeeded Pixis as Professor of the Violin at the Prague Conservatoire, and FERDINAND LAUB (1832-1874), a violinist of the very first rank.
It remains to mention a few violinists of emi- nence who do not stand in any direct connexion
with the established schools of violin-playing. FRANZ CLEMENT (1780-1842), who was a mu- sician and player of remarkable genius, deserves specially to be remembered as the first who played in public, and for whom, in fact, was written, the Concerto of Concertos, the original MS. of which bears this inscription : ' Concerto par Clemenza pour Clement, primo Violino e Diret- tore al theatre di Vienna, Dal L. v. Bthvn. 1806.* C. J. LIPINSKI (1790-1861) was mainly self- taught, an excellent, solid, and brilliant player ; though not exercising, either as composer or teacher, much influence on violin-playing gener- ally. BERNHARD MOLIQUE (1803-1869), although a pupil of Rovelli's at Munich, must be called a follower of Spohr. His concertos take a high rank in violin-literature, and although they cannot rival Spohr's in spontaneity of ideas, they show, as it were, a further development of that mas- ter's violin-style and technique. During his long residence in England, Molique formed a number of pupils, the best known of whom is CARRODUS. OLE BULL 1 (1810-1880), a player of great originality, not free from charlatanism, was entirely self-taught, and has not inappro- priately been described as a Northern Paganini. He belongs to no school, and has exercised no influence on the style of violin-playing of the period.
England has produced but few violin-players of eminence, and violin-playing has, as a rule, been represented in this country by foreigners. Thus we find Geminiani, Giardini, Wilhelm Cramer, Salomon, Viotti, Mori, Sainton, Straus, Normann Neruda, as the leading resident violin- ists in London, while there is hardly an eminent player during the last hundred years who has not visited the country.
The earliest English violin -player of note was DAVIS MELL, whom Hawkins calls the great rival of the German Baltzar. [See vol. i. P- I33-] JOHN BANISTER (about 1640-1700) was leader of the band of Charles II., in suc- cession to Baltzar. MATTHEW DUBOURG (1703- 1767) was a pupil of Geminiani, and appears to have been a clever player. His pupil, JOHN CLEGQ (died about 1742), was a brilliant vir- tuoso. J. ABRAHAM FISHER (born 1744) was a player of much talent, who travelled a great deal on the continent, but appears to have been much of a charlatan. THOMAS LINLET (1756- 1778) studied under Nardini at Florence, but died young. GEORGE A. P. BRIDGETOWER (i 779- 184-), though not born in England, made his studies in London, and must have been n player of considerable powers, to judge from the fact that Beethoven played with him the Kreutzer Sonata for the first time in public. THOMAS PINTO (died about 1780) and GEORGE F. PINTO (1786-1806) were born in London of Portuguese parents. Both were clever violinists. Among modern players, the most eminent are HENRY BLAGROVE (1811-1872), a pupil of Spohr, and the brothers ALFRED (1837-1876) and HENRY HOLMES (born 1839). The last-named, now i See BULL, OLE, la Appendix.