WACHT AM RHEIN.
the left bank of the Rhine was threatened by France, and was soon seized on by composers : F. Mendel of Berne (1840) ; Leopold Schroter of Worlitz (1852) ; and F. W. Bering of Strassburg, and lastly by Carl Wilhelm, the author of the melody given above, born at Schmalkalden in 1815, pupil of Aloys Schmidt, Anton Andre", and Spohr, and from 1840 to 1865 conductor of the Liedertafel in Crefeld. The song was composed by him as a part-song for men's voices, March 14, 1854, was first sung on the nth of the fol- lowing June, and quickly found its way into print. In 1871 Wilhelm received a pension of 150 a-year from the Emperor, but did not long survive his good fortune, as he died Aug. 16, 1873, in his native town, where a monument has been erected to him.
The ' Wacht am Rliein ' is the subject of the famous 'National DenkmaP near Bingen, by Johannes Schilling, the sculptor, which was un- veiled by the Emperor in 1883. It must not be confounded with another Ehine-song ^poem by N. Becker) of equal popularity in its time
Sie eollen ihn nicht haben, Den freien deutschen Ehein,
which was set to music by Kreutzer and many more, and sung everywhere in 1 840 and 41. The song is sharply criticised by Mendelssohn in his letters of Nov. 18 and 20, 1840, and Feb. 27, 1841, and was answered by Alfred de Musset in the well-known 'Nous 1'avons eu, votre Rhin allemand.' [M.F.]
WACHTEL, THEODOR, born March 10, 1823 or 1824, at Hamburg, the son of a stable-keeper, began life by driving his father's cabs. He learnt to sing from Mme. Grandjean, and obtained operatic engagements at Schwerin, Dresden, Hanover (1854), Berlin, Darmstadt, Vienna, etc. On June 7, 1862, he made his dibut in England at the Royal Italian Opera as Edgardo in ' Lucia,' and failed completely. He sang there again in the seasons of 1864 and 1865 with better results; and indeed obtained a certain popu- larity, more on account of his fine and powerful voice than from any artistic use he made of it. His principal attraction was the way he pro- duced a C in alt direct from the chest instead of by the customary falsetto; he brought out the note with Stentorian vigour and great success, especially when he played Manrico or Arnold. Of his other parts may be named Stradella on the production of Flotow's opera of that name at the Royal Italian Opera, June 4, 1864, and Vasco de Gama on the production of 'L'Afri- caine' in England, July 22, 1865. Here-appeared in 1870 and again in 1877 at Her Majesty's. In 1869 he sang in Paris with very indifferent results, but has been successful in America both in German and Italian opera. Two of his most popular characters in Germany are George Brown ('Dame Blanche') and Chapelon ('Pos- tilion *), especially the latter, in which he affords great delight to his audiences by the dexterous manner in which he cracks a coachman's whip in the Postilion's song. His son, THEODOB,
��began life as a clockmaker; and at one period of his life was a tenor singer of the same calibre as his father. He died of consumption in Jan. 1871, aged 30. [A.C.]
WADE, JOSEPH AUGUSTINE, born in Dublin at the close of the last or beginning of the present century. Not only is the date of Wade's birth doubtful, but his parentage also. According to surviving members of his own family, he was of gentle blood, but Dr. Richard R. Madden (his schoolfellow), the generally trustworthy bio- grapher of the 'United Irishmen,' tells us that his origin was humble, his father being a dairy- man near Thomas Street, Dublin. A similar uncertainty surrounds the place of his maturer education. The tales of his presenting himself at the gate of the University of Dublin, and addressing the porter in Latin are wild fictions, for the books of the University (called Trinity College, Dublin) reveal the fact that Wade was never a member of the place. He is said to have entered the 'Irish Record Office' as a junior clerk, when little more than 16, but no record remains of the fact in the books of the office. Wade soon quitted Dublin, and married a lady of fortune, Miss Kelly of Garnavilla, near Athlone. The first recorded essay of his muse is the words and music of a song, ' Lovely Kate of Garnavilla.' His bliss was however but short- lived, for he grew weary of the young lady, returned to the Irish metropolis, and is said to have acquired considerable skill as an anatomist and surgeon, but the books of the Irish College of Surgeons contain no mention of his name. About this time he published, through Thomas Cooke & Co. in Dublin, a ballad, of which both words and music were his own, 'I have culled ev'ry flowret that blows' ; and made the ac- quaintance of Sir J. Stevenson, who finding in him literary and melodial gifts, and what was then extremely rare amongst amateurs an ex- tended knowledge of harmony and the theory of music, strongly advised Wade to apply for the University chair of music, dormant since 1774, when the Earl of Mornington, appointed in 1764, had resigned the office. It was necessary however to matriculate and become a member of the University, and the matter fell to the ground. After this, surgery was abandoned, and Wade became a poet-musician. At this time he was of mild and gentlemanlike manners, and appeared about 25 years of age : it is possible that it was now, and not during his boyhood, that he and WILLIAM ROOKE found employment in the Record Office in Dublin. However, his restless disposition induced him to migrate to London, where his talents soon brought him into notice. From intercourse with orchestral performers, he acquired sufficient confidence to undertake to conduct the Opera during Mr. Monck Mason's regime, a position he did not long retain. In fact, he made but a poor pro- fessor, the poverty of his orchestration being not more remarkable than the antiquated style of his melody. He had been engaged by the firm of Chappell to make himself generally useful;