It exists now as an instrumental and not as a vocal performance. Its words are never heard, and, I think, would not be acceptable in America for public or private entertainments. And its music must be silent when serious purposes are entertained and men's hearts are moved to high efforts and great sacrifices.'
[ W. B. S. ]
YONGE, or YOUNG, Nicholas, the compiler of Musica Transalpina [see vol. ii., p. 416], is probably identical with a Nicholas Young who was a singing-man at St. Paul's Cathedral in the time of Elizabeth. Burney, misled by a passage in the Dedication to the 1st Book of Musica Transalpina, says that he was an Italian merchant, whereas all that Yonge says is 'Since I first began to keepe house in this citie, a great number of Gentlemen and Merchants of good accompt (as well of this realme as of forreine nations) have taken in good part such entertainment of pleasure, as my poore abilitie was able to affoord them, both by the exercise of Musicke daily used in my house, and by furnishing them with Bookes of that kind yeerely sent me out of Italy and other places.' Young was born at Lewes, Sussex. His mother's maiden name was Bray. During the greater part of his life he lived in the parish of St.Michael's, Cornhill: he had nine children, most of whom survived him and settled in the same parish, where his descendants remained until the 18th century, when some of them are found in that of St, James, Clerkenwell. His wife's name was Jane, and he was probably married about 1584. The title-page of the first Book of Musica Transalpina has been already given (vol. ii, p. 416 a); that of the second Book runs as follows—'Musica Transalpina. The Second Booke of Madrigalles, to 5 & 6 Voices: translated out of sundrie Italian Authors, and newly published by Nicholas Yonge. At London Printed by Thomas Este. 1597.' Lists of the contents of both volumes are printed (with many mistakes) in Rimbault's 'Bibliotheca Madrigaliana' (1847). Both books (copies of which are in the British Museum, Royal College of Music, and Huth Collections) seem to have been very successful. Bodenham printed the words of three of the madrigals in 'England's Helicon' (1600), and Dr. Heather, in his portrait in the Music School, Oxford, is represented holding a volume lettered 'Musica Transalpina.' Yonge died in October 1619. His will (which was proved by his wife on Nov. 12) is dated 19 October, 1619, and he was buried at St. Michael's, Cornhill, on the 2jrd of the same month.
[ W. B. S. ]
YORK MUSICAL FESTIVAL. The first festival was in 1791, and they were continued annually till 1803. [See Festivals, York; vol. i. p. 516 b.] After that no other festival took place until 1823, when the performance was revived for the benefit of the York County Hospital, and the Infirmaries at Leeds, Sheffield and Hull. The scheme consisted of four sacred concerts, including the Messiah in its entirety, held in the Cathedral on the mornings of Sept. 23 to 25, three secular evening concerts, and two balls given in the Assembly Rooms. The vocalists were Mme. Catalani (who usurped 'Comfort ye,' 'Every valley,' and 'Non più andrai'), Mrs. Salmon, Misses Stephens, D. Travis, and Goodall, sopranos; Knyvett and Buggins, altos; Bellamy, Sherwood, and Placci, bass. The band and chorus contained 180 instrumentalists and 285 vocalists; in the former were Cramer and Mori, leaders; Griesbach, Ella, Lindley, Dragonetti, Puzzi, Harper, etc., Greatorex was conductor, Matthew Camidge (who had officiated in 1791) and his son John, Knapton, and White, organists. The festival was rendered noteworthy from the receipts being larger than those at any previous meeting, viz. £16,174 16s. 8d. The sum of £7200 was divided between the charities. A long and voluminous account is given of the above in a 4to. volume by Mr. John Crosse, F.S.A. York, 1825, to which we are indebted for the above information. One of the evening concerts was rendered memorable by the performance of Beethoven's C minor Symphony under unusual circumstances. A parcel with duplicate orchestral parts did not arrive, and in consequence it was proposed to omit the Symphony. No sooner, however, did Miss Travis begin with the ballad, 'Charlie is my darling,' than a general murmur arose, and one of the stewards (F. Maude, Esq., Recorder of Doncaster), with a stentorian voice, to his honour, called out 'Symphony, Symphony, I insist on the Symphony being played!' Apology was in vain, and at last the Symphony was played with six or eight fiddles to a part.' The reader might naturally suppose' says Crosse (p. 353), 'that the performance failed in giving satisfaction: the contrary, however, was the case; every movement was listened to with attention and hailed with prolonged applause.'
A second festival was held in Sept. 1825, on a similar plan and for the same charities. The band and chorus were increased to 600, and among the vocalists who appeared for the first time were Madame Caradori-Allan, Madame Malibran (then Miss Garcia), Braham, Phillips, and De Begnis. The receipts were still larger, viz. £20,876 10s.; but owing to the cost of a concert-hall for the evening concerts, the profits were not in proportion, £1900 only being divided among the charities.
A third festival was held in Sept. 1828. Catalani reappeared, and Miss Paton, Madame Stockhausen, and Mr. Edward Taylor sang for the first time. Beethoven's Symphony in F was a novelty to the audience, and not so successful as the C minor in 1823. It was described in the
- Address delivered before the American Antiquarian Society, Oct. 20, 1872. The writer of the above article is greatly indebted for assistance kindly rendered by the Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, Mr. Clement K. Fay, and Mr. A. W. Thayer.
- The information in this article is chiefly derived from the Registers of St. Michael's, Cornhill, and the Visitation of London, both published by the Harleian Society.
- A satire on his somewhat bombastic style was published in London the same year, by an anonymous writer 'Outia.'
- See Ella's 'Musical Sketches,' p. 143.