��ZAPFENSTREICH. The German word Zap- fenstreich is said to owe its origin to General Wallenstein, who during the Thirty Years War in Germany found his unruly troopers so fond of nightly revels and drinking, that to prevent it he introduced the tattoo, or ' last call,' after which every soldier had to retire to rest. To insure obedience to this call, he ordered that when it was sounded the provost of the camp should go to all the sutlers' booths, and see that the barrels of drink were closed and a chalk-line drawn over the bung, as a precaution against serving drink during the night. Heavy penalties were enforced against the sutlers, if on the morning's inspection the chalk line was found to have been meddled with overnight. This act of 'sealing the bungs' appealed more forcibly to the senses of the revellers than the tattoo which accompanied it, and led to the signal being called Zapfenstreich literally ' bung-line,' which it has retained in that country ever since. [See TATTOO, vol. iv. p. 63.]
The ' Grosse Zapfenstreich ' (grand tattoo) of modern times, is in reality a monster serenade, which usually terminates the grand annual manoeuvres of the German army. On the last evening before the troops are dismissed to their homes, the bands of all the regiments who have taken part in the mimic war, combine, forming a monster mass of from 1000 to 1400 instrumen- talists, who perform by torchlight, in presence of the Emperor and numerous high officials assembled, a suitable programme, immediately followed by the proper Zapfenstreich, in which, besides the band, all buglers, trumpeters and drummers of the army take part. After an in- troductory eight bars for fifes and drums, a few drummers commence a roll very piano, gradually increasing in power ; this crescendo is aug- mented by all the drummers to the number of over 300 rapidly joining in until a thunderous forte is reached, when they break into four bars of simple beats in march-tempo, followed by the combined bands playing the proper Zapfenstreich (an ancient Quickstep).
^ Quick March. Band.
��When this is finished, the 'Retraite' of the combined cavalry bands is played, consisting of the old trumpet calls, interspersed with rolls of kettledrums .and full chords of brass instruments. A short 'call' by fifes and drums is then fol- lowed by the < Prayer,' a slow movement executed by all the combined bands
���Then a roll for the drums, the trumpet signal ' Gewehr ein ! ' and finally two bars of long chords bring the whole to a conclusion : Lento. -.
���Such a mere description as the above, even with the assistance of the published full score of the Grosse Zapfenstreich (Berlin, Schlesinger), can- not convey an idea of the purely traditional manner of the performance, which must be wit- nessed, with all the brilliant surroundings accom- panying it, to get an idea of the stirring effect it produces. [J.A.K.]
Z ARLINO, GIOSEFFE, one of the most learned and enlightened musical theorists of the i6th century, was born in 151 7 l at Chioggia the Clodia of the Romans whence he was generally known as Zarlinus Clodiensis. By the wish of his father, Giovanni Zarlino, he spent his youth in studying for the Church ; was admitted to the Minor Orders in 1539, and ordained Deacon in 1541. In that year he came to reside in Venice, where his proficiency as a theologian, aided by his intimate acquaintance with the Greek and Hebrew languages, and his attainments in Philo- sophy, Mathematics, Astronomy, and Chemistry, soon gained him an honourable position. But his love for Music, for which, as he himself tells us, in the Dedication prefixed to his c Istitutioni armoniche,' 'he had felt a natural inclination from his tenderest years,' tempted him to forsake all other studies, for his favourite pursuit; and he was at once accepted as a pupil by Adriano Willaert, the founder of the Venetian Polyphonic School, under whom he studied, in company with Cipriano di Rore and other promising neophytes.
On the removal of Cipriano di Rore to Parma, Zarlino was elected, in 1565, first Maestro di Cappella at S. Mark's, with every demonstration of honour and respect* The duties connected with this appointment were not confined to the Offices sung in the Cathedral. The Maestro was in the service of the Republic, and his talent was called into requisition, to add to the interest of all its most brilliant festivals. After the Battle of Lepanto, Oct. 7, 1571, Zarlino was commissioned to celebrate the greatest victory that Venice had ever won, with music worthy of the occasion. When Henri III. visited Venice,
l Not, as Burnej and Hawkins pretend, to 15*0 ; for he himself tells us (Soppl. Mus. Till. 131) that he came to reside In Venice In 1541. in which year he was ordal ned Deacon. Barney's mistake is rectified by Caffl (Storla della musica sacra, i. 129).