��Fioravanti. In July 1810 he left Paris for Naples, where in February 1813 he was ap- pointed Director of the Royal College of Music. In 1816 he succeeded Paisiello as Maestro di cappella of the Neapolitan Cathedral ; and held both these places until his death, May 5, 1837, at Torre del Greco, in his 86th year.
For the Birmingham Festival of 1829 Zinga- relli wrote a Cantata on the T2th Chapter of Isaiah. As he could not take it to England himself he entrusted his pupil, Costa, with the mission, and this was the occasion of Costa's introduction to the English public. [See vol. i. p. 406.] Zingarelli's next conposition was a Hymn to commemorate the inauguration of the Philharmonic Society of Naples in Jan. 1835. His oratorio, 'The Flight into Egypt,' was written and performed only a few weeks before his death in 1837, thus proving how, even at that advanced age, Zingarelli still continued working.
Of his very numerous Masses, without reckon- ing the 28 in the 'Annuale di Loreto,' the best are that of Novara; that of Dresden (commis- sioned by the King of Saxony, and performed in 1835 under the direction of Morlacchi, one of his pupils); a Kequiem for the Neapolitan minister Medici ; and another Requiem, com- posed for his own funeral.
Zingarelli was very simple and almost primi- tive in his way of living : rose early, worked hard all day, and, after partaking of a piece of bread and a glass of wine for his supper, retired early to rest. He used to write out his thoughts as soon as they occurred to him, and was quicker in composing than others would be in copying : when his imagination failed him he stopped. He had always more than one work on hand; and passed from one to another with the greatest ease. When composing he never touched the piano; and seldom erased or revised what he had once written. His strong religious feelings led him to live the life of an anchorite ; nor was he free from the superstition so com- mon among Italians. Never having married he loved his pupils as his children, working very hard with them; and he was happy in the great success which attended many of them, foremost among them being Bellini, Mercadante, Ricci, Costa, Florimo, etc. Many anecdotes are related of his indiscriminate almsgiving, which sometimes left him without the means of buying his own dinner, and caused him to die almost as poor as those whom he had helped.
Although in his ' Mercato di Monfregoso ' and in his ' Secchia rapita ' Zingarelli gives many proofs of a comic musical vein, he shone more in serious operas, and most of all in his numberless sacred compositions. Eminently conservative in style, and never deviating from the ancient landmarks, he was a most successful follower of Palestrina and Marcello. His sacred music is always well adapted to express the religious sentiment which he wishes to convey; it is never vague, extravagant or obscure; but is always limpid and natural, like a stream of placid water. His tunes invariably sustain each other,
and do not infringe the laws of harmony, of good taste and of propriety. Whether his music weeps with Jeremiah, exults with Ambrose, threatens with the Prophets, prays with the Shunammite, or triumphs with the Angels, it is invariably solemn and worthy of the Temple. The adapt- ation of profane music to religious services, so common in Italian churches, l he strenuously combated. His melodies originated in his heart, so full of faith and of charity ; and for this reason his sacred music breathes something utterly devout and of celestial fragrance. In this lay the secret of his success. Art and science fad before the pious fervour of faith, which alone can lead the soul to worship and religious ecstasy. The design of his choruses is perfect and their colouring never false or overcharged. His fugues are held in high commendation for the completeness of their arrangement, and the clearness and taste with which they are written.
The writer has consulted all the published biographies of Zingarelli, and desires to express his obligations to Monsignor Muzzarelli's 'Biografie degli illustri Italiani,' to the Marchese Puoti's Brevi Notizie,' and to Villarosa's 'Elogio Storico.'
The following is a list of Zingarelli's operas and oratorios.
�1771 1781 1785 1786 1787 t
1790 1791 1792
1800 1801 1803
1809 1812 1829 1833 1835 1837
�I quattro pazzl . . . . .
�Conservatorio, Naplei. S. Carlo, Naples. Scala, Milan. Do. Do. Do. Do. Opera, Paris. Scala, Milan. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Fenice, Venice. Reale, Turin. Fenice. Venice. Scala, Milan. Do. Do. Fenice, Venice. Do. Do. Scala, Milan. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Torre Argentina, Rome. Valle, Rome. 1TATAS. S. Carlo, Naplet. Milan. Do. Do. S. Celso, Milan. 4. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. S. Carlo, Naples. Rome. Naples. Valle, Rome. Paris. Florence. Birmingham. S. Michael, Rome. Philharmonic Soc. Naples, Naples, eiilce. Oct. 16, 1890.
� �Annibale ......
�Iflgenta in Aulide . . . .
� �Hone di Cesare .... L'Oracolo Sannita .... Plrro . ...
�La Secchia rapita .... 11 Mercato di Moutfregoso .
�Apelle e Campaspe .... Orazli e Curiazii .... Oonte dl Saldagna .... Romeo e Giulietta .... La Danalde ...
� �Mi trid ate . .
�Carolina e Menzikoff . . . Edipo a Colona ....
�11 Ratto delle Sabiue . . .
�[1 Bevltore fortunate ... Le Nozze di Durum ....
� � �ORATORIOS AND CA]
� � � �The Passion . Niced'Elpino
� � � �11 Trionfo di David .... Francesca da Rimini . . . Tancredi al Sepolcro d! Clorlnda . La Distruzione dl Gerusalemme . Conte Ugoiino La Riedificazione di Gerusalemme Isaiah
� �Hymn of Inauguration . The Flight into Egypt . . . > See Mendelssohn's Letter from Y