1714, 1722, 1727, and 1732, and an undated | edition about 1760. A portrait of the author, drawn and engraved by Faithorne, is prefixed to the first eight editions. Sir John Hawkins j in his History gives a long description of the Division Viol and Compendium (Novello's edition, pp. 708-712). He tells us also that Sympson 'dwelt some years in Turnstile, Hoi- born, and finished his life there' (at what date is not stated), and that he was of the Romish communion. [W.H.H.]
SYNCOPATION. The binding of two simi- lar notes so that the accent intended for the second appears to fall upon the first. [See ACCENT.] In the Coda of the great 'Leonora' Overture ('No. 3') Beethoven has a passage given out syn- copated on the wind and naturally on the strings, then vice versa.
It was not however always sufficient for Bee- thoven's requirements, as may be seen from a well-known place in the Scherzo of the Eroica, where he first gives a passage in syncopation
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and then repeats it in common time, which in this instance may be taken as an extreme form of syncopation.
��Schumann was fonder of syncopation than any other composer. His works supply many in- stances of whole short movements so syncopated throughout that the ear loses its reckoning, and the impression of contra-tempo is lost : e. g. Kin- derscenen, No. 10 ; Faschingsschwank, No. i, and, most noticeable of all, the opening bar of the ' Manfred * Overture.
���Wagner has one or two examples of exceed- ingly complex syncopation: an accompaniment figure in Act 2 of ' Tristan und Isolde/ which runs thus throughout,
��and a somewhat similar figure in Act I of ' Got- terdammerung ' (the scene known as 'Hagen's watch '), where the quavers of a 12-8 bar are so tied as to convey the impression of 6-4. The prelude to Act 2 of the same work presents a still more curious specimen, no two bars having at all the same accent.
��Its effect in the accompaniment of songs may be most charming. We will only refer to Men- delssohn's 'Nachtlied' (op. 71, no. 6), and to Schumann's 'Dein Bildniss' (op. 39, no. 2). [F.C.]
SYNTAGMA MUSICUM, i.e. Musical Trea- tise. A very rare work, by Michael Praetorius.
A detailed account is given in vol. iii. pp. 25-26. It remains only to speak of its interest as a biblio- graphical treasure. It was originally designed for four volumes, three only of which were published, with a supplementary collection of plates which Forkel mistook for the promised fourth volume. The first volume of the edition described by Fetis was printed at Wittemberg in 1615; the second and third at Wolfenbuttel in 1619 ; and the collection of plates Theatrum Instrumen- torum seu Sciagraphia at Wolfenbiittel in 1 62o. 1 A copy of this edition is in the Town Library at Breslau; 3 Mr. Alfred H. Littleton also possesses a very fine and perfect copy, which corresponds, in all essential particulars, with that described by Fe"tis. But neither Fe"tis nor Mendel seem* to have been aware of the existence of an older edition. A copy of this is in the possession of the Rev. Sir F. A. G. Ouseley. The ist volume bears the same date as Mr. Littleton's copy, ' Wittebergae, 1615'; but the 2nd and 3rd volumes are dated 'Wolfenbuttel, 1618'; and the difference does not merely lie in the state- ment of the year, but clearly indicates an earlier issue. In the edition of 1618, the title-page of the 2nd volume is printed entirely in black : in that of 1619, it is in black and red. The title- page of the 3rd volume is black in both editions; but in different type : and, though the contents of the 2nd and 3rd volumes correspond generally in both copies, slight typographical differences may be detected in sufficient numbers to prove the existence of a distinct edition, beyond all doubt. It has long been known that twenty pages of the General Introduction were more than once reprinted; but these belong to the first volume, and are in no way concerned with the edition of 1618, of which, so far as we have been able to ascertain, Sir F. Ouseley's copy is an unique example.
But, apart from its rarity, the book is doubly interesting from the extraordinary dearth of other early treatises on the same subject. Three similar works only are known to have preceded it ; and the amount of information in these is compara- tively very small. The earliest is a small volume, of 112 pages, in oblong 4to, by Sebastian Vir- dung, entitled ' Musica getuscht und aussgezogen,
1 In our description of this edition, In the article FBAETOBIUS, the following errata occur
Vol. iii. p. 266, line 19, for 1618 read 1618. note, for 1519 read 1619.
2 See the exhaustive Catalogue bj Emil Bourn (Berlin, 1883).