christliche Gemein durchauss mit singen kann.' The title shows that the removal of the melody to the upper part was due to a desire for congregational singing. The earlier books in motet form of course contemplated only the participation of the practised choir. This book was followed in 1594 by a similar treatment of the Psalter in Lobwasser's version by Samuel Marschal. The chorale was after this sung either in four voice-parts, with the canto fermo in the discant; or in unison, with florid counterpoint on the organ. The latter is considered the more classical form in Germany. [See also Bourgeois and Franc in Appendix].
The composition, harmonization, and collection of chorales for the services of the Lutheran (and other Protestant) churches engaged the artistic talents of a whole school of musicians, of whom some of the most eminent are treated in special articles. [See Agricola, Martin; Calvisius, Seth; Cruger, J.; Ducis, Benedictus; Eccard, Joh.; Frank, Melchior; Fretlinghausen, J. A. (App.); Hammerschmidt, A. (App.); Isaac, Heinrich; Neumark, Georg. (App.); Praetorius, Michael and Jacob; Scheidt, S. (App.); Schein, J. Hermann (App.); Senfl, Lud.; Vopelius, Gottf. (App.); Vulpius, Melchior (App.); Walther, Joh. Of the more important musicians not thus treated short notices now follow.
Arnold de Bruck (i. e. of Bruges), born at Bruges in 1480; in 1530 Kapellmeister to the King of Rome (afterwards Emperor Ferdinand I) at Vienna, where he died in 1536; wrote for 4 or 5 voices; pieces by him are given in M. Agricola's 'Newe deutsche geistliche Gesenge.'
George Rhau (Rhaw), born 1488 at Eisfeld in Franconia, was Cantor at the Thomasschule at Leipzig till 1520, after which he settled at Wittemberg and became a printer, issuing books both in ordinary typography (including many first editions of Luther's writings) and in musical notes, including his own work 'Enchiridion musicae mensuralis' 1532. [See Agricola, Martin.] Winterfeld ascribes some chorales to him.
Stephan Mahu, a singer in the chapel of Ferdinand King of the Romans (afterwards Emperor) is known as a contrapuntist; his chief work is Lamentations for four voices (in Joanelli's 'Thesaurus'), and there are some pieces in G. Forster's collection of Motets, Hans Walther's Cantionale, etc.
Johann Kugelmann, of Augsburg, was a trumpet-player and contrapuntist of the first half of the 16th century, and Kapellmeister to Duke Albert at Königsberg; he wrote some church music printed at Augsburg in 1540.
Nicolas Herman (Heermann), Cantor at Joachimsthal in Bohemia about the middle of the 16th century, and esteemed also as versifier; he died very old in 1561. There are chorales extant, of which both words and music are by him, e. g. 'Erschienen ist der herrlich Tag' and 'Lobt Gott, ihr Christen alle gleich.' For ��tonality and clear rhythm his chorales sound more modern than most of his age.
Balthasar Resinarius (latine for Harzer), born at Hessen in the territory of Meissen in the early years of the 16th century, took clerical orders and became bishop of Leipa in Bohemia. He was a pupil of Isaac, and published at Wittenberg in 1543 'Responsoriorum numero octoginta de tempore et festis … libri duo.'
Sixt Dietrich, an excellent German composer, who lived at Constance in the middle of the 16th century, wrote 36 Antiphons, Witt. 1541, and 'Novum opus musicum,' Witt. 1545.
Lucas Osiander, born 1534 at Nuremberg, Protestant minister at several places in Würtemberg, died in 1604. Of his Chorale book with the melody in the upper part for congregational singing mention has been made above.
Samuel Marschal (Marschall), born 1557 at Tournay, was a notary, and became University musician and organist at Basle; he was living in 1627. He was a composer of hymns, in which he followed Osiander in putting the melody in the discant. His works are 'Der ganze Psalter Ambrosii Lobwassers mit 4 Stimmen,' Leipzig 1594 and Basle 1606; 'Psalmen Davids, Kirchengesange … von M. Luther und anderer, mit 4 Stimmen,' Basle 1606; and 'Einführung zu der Musica.'
Nicolaus Seleneccer (properly Schellenecker), born 1539 at Hersbruck in Franconia, played the organ as a boy, became an eminent theologian, and in 1557 was Court preacher at Dresden. He published 'Christliche Lieder und Kirchengesänge,' Leipzig 1587; and seven penitential psalms, 1585, and died 1592.
Adam Gumpelzhaimer, born about 1560 at Trostberg in Upper Bavaria, was instructed in music by Father Jodocus Enzmüller of the convent of S. Ulrich, Augsburg; in 1575 went into the service of the Duke of Würtemberg as musician, and gained considerable reputation as composer of songs both sacred and secular. His sacred songs or hymns, generally for several voices, sometimes as many as eight, are considered almost equal to those of Lassus. He also wrote 'Compendium musicae latinum-germanicum,' Augsburg 1595, of which Fétis says no less than twelve editions were published. In 1581 he took the place of Cantor at Augsburg, which he held till his death at the beginning of the next century.
Michael Altenburg, born about 1583 at Tröchtel in Thuringia, studied theology at Halle in 1601, and was pastor at several places, finally at Erfurt, where he died in, 1640. He worked at music from his student-years and was one of the most eminent arrangers of church-music of his time. Of his chorale tunes, 'Macht auf die Thor der G'rechtigkeit' and 'Herr Gott nun schleuss den Himmel auf' are still used. But more important are the collections published by him, and his larger sacred works:—'Christliche liebliche und andächtige neue Kirchen- und Hausgesänge,' Erfurt 1619–21 in 3 vols.; '16 Intraden' for violins, lutes, organs, etc.; also