The Dominant of this Mode is the fourth degree above its final, corresponding with the modern Sub-dominant. And, as this forms so important an element in the treatment of the inverted Pedal, modern Composers apply the term Plagal to all Cadences in which the Subdominant precedes the Tonic Bass. The term serves its purpose well enough: but it rests upon an erroneous basis, since there is no such interval as a Sub-dominant in the Plagal Modes from which the progression derives its name.
In all the Clausula hitherto described, the two essential parts form together, in the final note, either an Octave, or Unison. There is yet another class in which the parts form a Fifth.
Morleyseems inclined to class these among the True Closes; but most early writers regard them as Clausulæ fictæ, vel irregulares.
[ W. S. R. ]
CLAVICHORD. Line 2 of article, add The Italian name is Manicordo, the name Clavicordo being the equivalent of the German Clavier in the sense of any keyboard instrument having strings. P. 367 a, add at beginning of line 18, in clavichords of the 18th century. P. 368 a, l. 22, 'An admired effect due to change of intonation' is inaccurate. To play out of tune was deprecated by C. P. E. Bach. There is no doubt that clavichord players preserved a very tranquil position of the hand in order to preserve truth of intonation. Line 26, for shortened read tightened. Line 30, for with varying power of touch, read without quitting the key. Line 31, The Bebung (vibrato) was obtained without allowing the finger to quit the key.
With respect to the introduction of the chromatic keyboard, Hubert van Eyck painted the S. Cecilia panel of the famous Ghent altar-piece in which there is a Positive organ depicted with the chromatic division of the keyboard. He died in 1426, and that was therefore the last year in which this panel could have been painted. It is probable that the Halberstadt organ, built in 1360, had this division. If so, it is the earliest known example.
P. 368 b, l. 17, for the end read the middle. (Corrected in late editions.) Line 25. The Latin version of Virdung is, as is now well known, by Luscinius, whom many have credited with being the original author. Line 34. The scale of Guido should include the highest note e, and contain, with the B molle et durum, 22 notes. Line 8 from bottom, the statement that there was a clavichord dated 1520, wanting two semitones in the octave, proves to be unfounded. See Welcker's earlier account of it in 'Neu eröffnetes Magazin musikalischen Tonwerkzeuge,' p. 106 (Frankfort, 1855).
The last clavichords that were made were constructed by Hoffmann, Stuttgart, in 1857, on the pattern of one belonging to Molique. They were made for the late Joseph Street, of Lloyds. [See also Tangent.]
[ A. J. H. ]
CLAVICYTHERIUM. P. 369 b. This instrument is figured in Virdung, 1511, and a remarkable specimen from the Correr collection, now belonging to Mr. G. Donaldson of London, was exhibited in the Music Loan Collection, 1885, and is figured from a drawing in colours in Mr. A. J. Hipkins's 'Musical Instruments' (Black, Edinburgh, 1887).
CLAY, Frederic. Add the productions of 'The Merry Duchess' (Royalty Theatre, May 23, 1883), and 'The Golden Ring' (Alhambra, Dec. 3. 1883).
CLAYTON, Thomas. Add that he is said to have died about 1730.
CLÉ DU CAVEAU. The title of a large collection of French airs, including the tunes of old songs dating from before the time of Henri IV, old vaudevilles, commonly called pont-neufs, and airs from operas and opéras comiques which from their frequent use in comédies-vaudevilles have become popular airs (what are called timbres). The fourth and last edition of the work, published by Capelle, goes down to 1848; a new edition would have to include airs taken from comic operas by Auber, Adam, etc., written since the above date, and airs from the operettas of Offenbach and Lecocq, which have now become new types for the vaudeville couplet and have enriched the domain of the popular song. The collection is so arranged that it is perfectly easy to find either the tune of a song of which the words only are known, or the metre and rhythm of words which will fit any particular air. The publication is especially useful to dramatists who have to write couplets for a vaudeville, and to amateur song-writers; it contains 2350 different airs, and as many forms or models for couplets. The origin of the title is as follows:—Three French song-writers of the 18th century Piron, Crébillon fils, and Collé, instituted, in 1733, a sort of club, where they dined regularly, together with other song-writers and literary men. They called their society le Caveau, from the place of meeting, an inn of that name kept by one Landelle in the Rue de Buci, near the Comédie Française and the Café Procope, where these boon companions finished their evenings. From that time all societies of song-writers have connected themselves as much as possible with this first society, and so the name Caveau is synonymous with a club of the same kind. The original society lasted exactly ten years, after which, in 1762, Piron, Crébillon fils, and Gentil-Bernard formed a new society in the same place, which lasted only five years. After the Revolution, the 'Caveau moderne' was founded in 1806 by Capelle, the author of the Clé du Caveau, with the help of Grimod de la Reynière, Piis, Armand Gouffé, and Philippon de la Madeleine; they met at Balaine's in the Rocher de Cancale, rue Mont-
- Plaine and Easie Introduction, p. 74 (2nd edition, 1608).