now destroyed or mutilated by ignorant workmen.
Pierre-François, son of Pierre, born in Paris 1764, worked with his father from 1801 to 1807, when the latter retired from business, and Pierre-François remained alone. He never had an opportunity of undertaking a large work, but was entirely occupied in repairing instruments. He was clever in certain points, but had not studied his art profoundly, and being a needy man, often used inferior materials. He died in Paris in 1833, leaving nothing but his name to his son, Louis Paul, who was born in 1797 and continued the business.
[ V. de P. ]
DAMASCENE, Alexander. Line 3, for June 26, read July 22. Line 5, for Aug. 30, 1691, read Dec. 6, 1690.
DAMOREAU, L. C. M. P. 428 b, l. 8 from bottom, add date of tour in the United States, 1843.
DAMROSCH, LEOPOLD, born at Posen, Prussia, Oct. 22, 1832. After a preliminary education at the gymnasium in his native town, he graduated at the Berlin University in 1854, with the degree of Doctor of Medicine. Showing decided musical tastes in early life, he determined, after his graduation, to abandon medicine and devote himself to the study of music, which was pursued by him with such success, at Berlin, that he was permitted to make a public appearance, as solo violinist, at Magdeburg, in 1855. After giving concerts in the principal German cities he was appointed (1857) by Liszt leading violinist in the court orchestra at Weimar, of which Liszt was then director. In 1858 Damrosch was appointed conductor of the Philharmonic Society of Breslau, where he manifested his admiration for Wagner's theories and for the new school of musical art in Germany. His programmes presented, together with the compositions by the older masters, works by Wagner, Liszt, and Berlioz—music not then widely admired or appreciated. In 1860 numerous engagements as solo violinist compelled him to withdraw from the Philharmonic Society. In 1861 he established the Orchester-Verein of Breslau, of which he remained director until 1871, when he went to New York on the invitation of the Arion Society. On the organization of the Oratorio Society (1873) and of the Symphony Society (1878) he was elected conductor of each, positions held by him, with that of conductor of the Arion (male voices) until his death. During the season 1876–77 he officiated as conductor of the Philharmonic Society's concerts.
Dr. Damrosch was mainly instrumental in the establishment of German opera at the Metropolitan Opera House, New York, and was its director-in-chief from Aug. 1884 until his death, Feb. 15, 1885. His last appearance in public was at a performance of 'Lohengrin,' Feb. 9. A son, Walter Damrosch, succeeded him in the direction of the Oratorio Society and Symphony Society, and was continued in the service of the opera company as assistant director. The following compositions have been published in Germany:—
1. Idylle and Mazurka; Vla. and PF.
2. Stimmungen; 3 pieces, Vln. and PF.
3. Improvisation on theme by Schumann: Vln.
4. Two Romanzas; Vln. and PF.
5. Five Songs.
6. Three Songs.
7. Three Songs.
8. Twelve Songs.
9. Concertstück. in form of serenade, four movements; Vln. and Orch. or PF.
10a. Romanza; Vln. and PF.
b. Six Songs.
11. Twelve Spanish Songs.
12. Romanza; Vln. and Orch. or PF.
13. Three Songs.
14. Three Songs.
15. Festival Overture; Orch.
16. Five Songs.
17. Five Songs.
18. Six Choruses; male voices.
19. Patriotic Songs.
Without opus number:—
Concerto; Vln. and Orch. or PF.
Nachtgesang; Vln. and Orch. or PF.
Capricietto; Vln. and Orch. or PF.
Brautgesang (Uhland); Tenor and Baritone Solos, Male Chorus, Orchestra.
Published in the United States, without opus number:—
Ruth and Naomi; Oratorio.
Saint Cecilia; collection of Anthems and other Church Music.
'Tell me where is Fancy bred'; Glee, Male voices.
Siegfried's Sword; Tenor Solo and Orchestra or PF.
'Thou, Who art God alone'; Masonic Song, Baritone Solo, Male Chorus and Orchestra.
Lexington Battle-Hymn; mixed chorus.
Two duets; Tenor and Baritone.
The Fisher-Boy (Schiller); Song, Soprano.
[ F. H. J. ]
DANCE RHYTHM and dance gestures have exerted the most powerful influence on music from prehistoric times till the present day. The analogy of a similar state of things among uncivilised races still existing confirms the inherent probability of the view that definiteness of any kind in music, whether of figure or phrase, was first arrived at through connection with dancing. The beating of some kind of noisy instrument as an accompaniment to gestures in the excitement of actual war or victory, or other such exciting cause, was the first type of rhythmic music, and the telling of national or tribal stories and deeds of heroes, in the indefinite chant consisting of a monotone slightly varied with occasional cadences, which is met with among so many barbarous peoples, was the first type of vocal music. This vague approach to musical recitation must have received its first rhythmic arrangement when it came to be accompanied by rhythmic gestures, and the two processes were thereby combined, while song and dance went on together, as in mediaeval times in Europe.
The process in the development of modern music has been similar. The connection between popular songs and dancing led to a state of definiteness in the rhythm and periods of secular music long before the times which are commonly regarded as the dawn of modern music; and in course of time the tunes so produced were not only actually used by the serious composers of choral music, as the inner thread of their works, but they also exerted a modifying influence upon their style, and led them by degrees to change the unrhythmic vagueness of the early state of things to a regular definite rhythmic system. The fact that serious music was more carefully recorded than secular makes the state of the art in the time of Dunstable, Tinctor, De Muris, and the Francos to appear more theoretical than effective. Serious musicians were for the most
- Copyright 1889 by F. H. Jenks