XII, and simply mentions the rejected Locrian and Hypolocrian scales by name, without assigning them any definite numbers.
Zacconi's Table agrees with that of Glareanus. Fux generally describes the Modes by name, and takes but little notice of their numerical order. In later times, the editors of the Mechlin Office-Books have endeavoured to reconcile the two conflicting systems by appending double numbers to the disputed Modes. Dr. Proske, in his 'Musica divina,' follows the first-mentioned system, describing the Ionian and Hypoionian Modes, as Nos. XIII and XIV; and the same plan has been uniformly adopted in the present Dictionary. The want of an unvarying method of nomenclature is much to be regretted; but it no way affects the essence of the question, for, since the publication of the Dodecachordon, no one has ever seriously attempted to dispute the dictum of Glareanus, that twelve Modes, and twelve only, are available for practical purposes; and these twelve have found pretty nearly equal favour among the Great Masters of the Polyphonic School.
The Dodecachordon enters minutely into the peculiar characteristics of each of the twelve Modes; and gives examples of the treatment of each, selected from the works of the best Masters of the early Polyphonic School. The amount of information it contains is so valuable and exhaustive, that it is doubtful whether a student of the present day could ever succeed in thoroughly mastering the subject without its assistance.
The text, comprised in 470 closely printed folio pages, is illustrated by 89 Compositions, for two, three, and four voices, with and without words, printed in separate parts, and accompanied by directions for deciphering the Enigmatical Canons, etc., by the following Composers:—Antonio Brumel (4 compositions); Nicolaus Craen (1); Sixt Dietrich (5); Antonius Fevin (1); Adam de Fulda (1); Damianus à Goes Lusitanus (1); Heinrich Isaac (5); Josquinus Pratensis [Josquin des Près] (25); Listenius (1); Adam Luyr Aquægranensis (1); Gregor Meyer (10); Joannes Mouton (4); Jac. Obrechth (3); Johannes Okenheim (3); De Orto (1); Petrus Platensis [Pierre de la Rue] (3); Richafort (1); Gerardus à Salice Flandri (1); Lutvichus Senflius (3); Andr. Sylvanus (1); Thomas Tzamen (1); Jo. Vannius [Wannenmacher] (1); Vaqueras (1); Antonius a Vinea (1); Paulus Wuest (1); Anonymous (9).
The first edition of the ΔΩΔΕΚΑΧΟΡΔΟΝ was printed at Basle, in 1547. A second edition, entitled 'De Musices divisione ac definitione,' but with the same headings to the chapters, is believed to have been printed, at the same place, in 1549. A small volume, entitled 'Musicæ Epitome, sive Compendium, ex Glareani Dodecachordo,' by J. Wonnegger, was published at Basle in 1557, and reprinted in 1559. The original work is now very scarce, and costly; though, happily, less so than the 'Syntagma' of Prætorius, or the 'Musica getuscht und ausgezogen' of Sebastian Virdung. Copies of the edition of 1547 will be found at the British Museum, and the Royal College of Music; and the British Museum also possesses the first edition of Wonnegger's 'Epitome.'
[ W. S. R. ]
DÖRFFEL, Alfred, born Jan. 24, 1821, at Waldenburg in Saxony, received his first musical education from the organist Joh. Trube. In 1835 he entered the Leipzig Conservatorium, where he received instruction from Karl Kloss, G. W. Fink, C. G. Müller, Mendelssohn and Schumann. In 1837 he made a successful appearance as a pianist, and soon afterwards attained to a high position as a musical critic. In the 'Neue Zeitschrift für Musik' he wrote some reviews of Schumann's works, which anticipated the verdict of posterity, although they did not correspond with contemporary opinion concerning that master's greatness. His criticism of 'Genoveva' gave the composer great pleasure. From 1865 to 1881 he contributed to the 'Leipzige Nachrichten,' and in 1860 was appointed custodian of the musical department of the town library. In the following year he established a music lending library together with a music-selling business, in both of which he was succeeded in 1885 by his son, Balduin Dörffel. He has undertaken much work for the firm of Breitkopf & Härtel, whose critical editions of the classics, and especially that of Beethoven, have been chiefly corrected by him. For the edition of Peters he has edited the pianoforte works of Schumann, and other compositions, and several of the Bach-Gesellschaft volumes have been issued under his direction. In 1887 he edited the 'St. Luke Passion' for the first-named firm. To the literature of music he has contributed an edition of Berlioz's treatise on instrumentation, the second edition of Schumann's 'Gesammelte Schriften,' and has published an invaluable history of the Gewandhaus concerts from 1781 to 1881 ('Festschrift zur hundertjahrigen Jubelfeier, etc. Leipzig, 1884), in recognition of which the University of Leipzig conferred upon him the degree of Doctor.
[ H. B. ]
DOLES, Johann Friedrich, born in 1716 at Steinbach in Saxe-Meiningen, was educated at the Schleusingen Gymnasium, where he availed himself of instruction in singing and in playing on the violin, clavier, and organ. In 1738 he went to Leipzig for a course of theology at the University, and while there pursued his musical studies under J. S. Bach. His compositions, however, bear little trace of Bach's influence; though fluent and correct, they have none of that great master's depth and grandeur. Doles
- It will be noticed that the variations affect the later Modes only. The first eight Modes—the only Modes that can consistently be called 'Gregorian'—are distinguished by the same numbers in all systems but one. This exception is to be found in the Table given by Zarlino, who numbers the Modes thus:—I. Ionian; II. Hypoionian; III. Dorian; IV. Hypodorian; V. Phrygian; VI. Hypophrygian; VII. Lydian; VIII. Hypolydian; IX. Mixolydian; X. Hypomixolydian; XI. Æolian; XII. Hypoæolian. This method is exceptionally confusing, since not one of its numbers corresponds with those of any other system.
- Consult, on this point, Baini's 'Life of Palestrina' ('Memorie,' etc.) Tom. ii. p. 81.
- See vol. 1. p. 598 a.