come them. The same person who just before seemed fettered to the earth, springs aloft, throws himself around in the air as though he had wings. Then, after many break-neck movements and evolutions, before which the unaccustomed spectator grows dizzy, the dance suddenly assumes again its first quiet, careless, somewhat heavy character, closes as it begun, sunk upon the earth.'
The Halling is generally danced by single dancers, or at most by two or three dancing in competition. It is accompanied on the Hardanger fiddle ('Hardangerfelen'), a violin strung with four stopped and four sympathetic strings. The music is generally written in 2-4 time, in a major key, and is played allegretto or allegro moderate, but a few examples are found in triple time. Many of the most popular Halling tunes were composed by Maliser-Knud, a celebrated performer on the Hardangerfelen who flourished about 1840. The following is a traditional and characteristic example:—
[ W. B. S. ]
HAMMERSCHMIDT, Andreas, was born at Brix in Bohemia, in 1611. His life was very uneventful. Details as to the circumstances of his early life and training are wanting. In 1635 he became organist at Freiberg in Saxony, and in 1639 exchanged that post for a similar one at Zittau in Oberlausitz, where he remained till his death on Oct. 29, 1675. His epitaph describes him as 'that noble swan who has ceased to sing here below, but now increases the choir of angels round God's throne: Germany's Amphion, Zittau's Orpheus.' Though his outward life was uneventful, his works made him renowned as a musician over the whole of Northern Germany, and he was on terms of intimacy with many of the most important men of his day. Of musicians he owed most to Heinrich Schütz, but he very early struck out a line of his own, which makes him of considerable importance historically in connection with the development of German Protestant Church Music up to Sebastian Bach. A general list of his works in chronological order, with brief notes on the more important, will serve to illustrate his position in musical history.
1. 'Musikalische Andachten' (Musical devotions). Part I, having the sub-title 'Geistliche Concerte' (which indicates their character as written in the Italian concerted style with Basso Continuo). Contains 21 settings of German sacred words, 1 a 1, 15 a 2, 4 a 3, 1 a 4.
2. 'Musikalische Andachten.' Part II, with the sub-title, 'Geistliche Madrigalien' (this subtitle being meant to imply that the pieces are written in the motet-style, but with the added intensity of expression usually associated with the idea of the secular madrigal). Contains 12 a 4, 8 a 5, 4 a 6.
3. 'Musikalische Andachten,' Part III, with the sub-title 'Geistliche Symphonieen (implying the combination of voices and instruments). Contains 31 pieces.
These three parts of 'Musikalische Andachten' were published at Dresden in the years 1638, '41, '42, respectively. In these works he takes Schütz for his model; and Winterfeld says of them that if he is inferior to Schütz in grandeur of conception; he surpasses him in a certain elegance and grace, and in the smoothness of his part-writing.
4. 'Dialogi oder Gespräache zwischen Gott und einer gläubigen Seele, aus den Biblischen Texten zusammengezogen und componirt in 2, 3, und 4 Stimmen, nebenst dem Basso Continuo.' (Dialogues or Conversations between God and the believing Soul, etc.) 2 parts, Dresden, 1645.
This work opened a new vein in sacred composition. First, Bible texts are so chosen as to give occasion to not only successive but simultaneous contrast of musical expression, e.g. texts of prayer for one voice with texts of promise for the other, etc. Secondly, verses of chorales are interwoven with settings of Bible texts. We are familiar with the later use of these devices in the Kirchen-Cantaten of Sebastian Bach. The first part of these 'Dialogues' contains 22 pieces, 10 a 2, 10 a 3, 2 a 4. The second part consists chiefly of settings of Spitz's versified translations from the 'Song of Songs,' 12 pieces with accompaniment of two violins and bass, and three so-called Arias, not Arias in our modern sense, but in the sense in which Bach used the word, as in his motet 'Komm Jesu, Komm.'
5. 'Musikalische Andachten,' Part IV, with the sub-title 'Geistliche Motetten und Concerten' (Freiberg, 1646), so called because instruments may be used for the most part ad libitum. Contains 40 pieces, 4 a 5, 8 a 6, 5 a, 15 a 8, 3 a 9, 2 a 10, 3 a 12.
6. 2 parts of 'Paduanen, Gaillarden, Balletten, etc., for instruments.' (Freiberg, 1648, '50.)
7. Latin Motets for two and three voices with instrumental accompaniment. (Dresden, 1649.)
8. 'Musikalische Andachten,' Part V, with the sub-title 'Chor-Musik.' (Leipzig, 1653.) Contains 31 pieces a 5 and 6, 'in Madrigal-manier.'
9. 'Musikalische Gespräche uber die (Sonntags und Fest-), Evangelia.' (Dresden, 1655, '56.)
This work takes up again the form of the 'Dialogi' of 1645, and makes much use of the interweaving of chorales with Biblical texts. It is in two parts, containing altogether 59 pieces (mostly with instrumental accompaniment).
10. 'Fest- Buss- und Dank-lieder' (Festal, Penitential and Thanksgiving Hymns), for five voices and five instruments ad libitum. (Zittau. 1658.)
11. 'Kirchen- und Tafel-Musik' (Church and Chamber Music), 'darinnen 1, 2, 3, Vocal- und 4,