crowned with a wreath. The expressive cha- racter shown in the portrait should vouch for the resemblance to the composer even if Burney had not said that it was very like. On the front board above the keys is inscribed a complete piece of clavecin music, ' Pastorale par Mr. Balbastre, le 6 Aoust, 1767,' beginning
��The stand for this instrument is rococo, and gilt. In the same house (Carlton House Terrace), and sold by auction at the same time for 290, was an
��Andries Kuckers harpsichord that had also been made into a pianoforte by Zeitter. In this instru- ment the original belly, dated 1628, was pre- served. The soundhole contained the rose (No. 6) of this maker. The present compass of the piano is five octaves F F. Inside the top is a landscape with figures, and outside, figures with musical instruments on a gold ground. Hound the case on gold are dogs and birds, a serpent and birds, etc. All this decoration is i8th century work. The instrument is on a Louis Quinze gilt stand. It will be seen that these two harpsichords have undergone remarkable changes at intervals of more than one hundred years. They will be numbered 67 and 68 in the list of extant Ruckers clavecins, which completes all that is at present known to the writer concerning the existing instruments of that family.
��HANS RUCKERS (the Elder or the Younger) and ANDRIES RUCKERS (the Elder).
�Source of inform- ation.
�Bent side. Bent side.
�Not original. 7fU74 by 3ft. 6 1
�To be found in pp. 1936, 194 a. Eose No. 6 in soundboard, which is painted with
�Panmure Gordon, Esq. Walter H. Burns, Esq.
�A. J. Hipkins. A. J. Hipkins.
� � � � �the usual decoration. The width has been in-
�and Captain Hall.
� � � � � �creased to admit of a greater compass.
� � �69
� �32 in. long. 12J
�White natural keys. E to D, nearly 4 octaves.
�W. H. Hammond
�W. H. H. Jones,
� �in. wide, 6 in,
�Inscribed Andreas Ruckers me fecit Antverpiae
�Jones, Esq., Witley,
� � � �deep : key-
�(Rose No. 6 ?). Inside surfaces painted in black
� � � � �board projects
�curved design on a white ground, Red line
� � � � � �4 in.
�round the inside. Georgian mahogany case.
� � ��ANDRIES RUCKERS (the Elder).
�Source of inform- ation.
�6 ft. 4 in., 2 ft. 9 at keyboard.
�Two keyboards, compass 4.^ octaves G D, white naturals. Two unisons and octave. Sound- board painted, and usual A. Ruckers rose.
�Mr. C. Cramp, Byfleld, Northamptonshire.
�Mr. 0. Cramp.
��Nos. I to 58 are tabulated in vol. iii. pp. 197-9. Nos. 59 to 62, vol. iii. p. 652. Nos. 63 to 66, vol. iv. p. 305.
P. 194 a, 1. 21, for always long read long, or it may have been trapeze-shaped. It must be remembered that the names Clavicordio in Spain, Clavicordo in Italy, and Clavicorde in France, have been always applied to the quilled instru- ments. We are not therefore sure whether old references to the clavichord are to be taken as describing a plectrum or a tangent keyboard instrument.
P. 194 b, It is doubtful what changes of con- struction Hans Ruckers made in the harpsichord perhaps the octave strings only. Yet a clavicem- balo by Domenico di Pesaro, dated 1590, lately acquired by South Kensington Museum, has the octave strings with two stops. His great service may after all have only been to improve what others had previously introduced. It is nearly certain that harpsichords with double keyboards and stops for different registers existed before Hans Ruckers' time, and their introduction may be attributed to the great favour the Clavi- organum, or combined spinet and organ, was held in during the i6th century. The researches of Mr. Edmond Vander Straeten (' LaMusique aux
��Pays Bas,' vol. viii. Brussels 1885), have done much to bring into prominence the great use of the Claviorganum at an early time ; see Rabelais, who, before 1552, described Caremeprenant as having toes like an * epinette organisee.'
P. 1946, footnote 2. The latest harpsichord in date known to have been made in London is the fine Joseph Kirkman, dated 1798, belonging to Mr. J. A. Fuller Maitland.
P. 195 &, 1. 37, see Ruckers No. 59, by Hans the elder, now in the Kunst und Gewerbe Museum, Berlin, as being similarly constructed.
P. 1 96 a, footnote, The Hitchcocks were active in the second half of the 1 7th century and in the first years of the i8th. [A.J.H.]
RUDDYGORE: OB, THE WITCH'S CURSE (Title afterwards spelt RUDDIGORE.) Comic opera in twa acts ; the words by W. S. Gilbert, music by Sir Arthur Sullivaa. Produced at the Savoy Theatre, Jan. 22, 1887.
RUDERSDORFF, HERMINE. Line n of axticle, for June 5 read June 25. A.dd date of death, Feb. 26, 1882.
RUDOLPH, ARCHDUKE. P. 201 b, to list of works add Variations by him on a theme of Rossi- ni's, corrected by Beethoven, exist in MS. (Thayer).