Page:A Manchu grammar, with analysed texts.djvu/16

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II. Etymology.

The words of Manchu language may be divided into: 1. nouns and adjectives, 2. pronouns, 3. numerals, 4. verbs, 5. adverbs, 6. postpositions, 7. conjunctions, 8. interjections.


1. Nouns and adjectives I treat together, as they have many terminations in common and as many adjectives may be used as nouns and vice versa.

The terminations for nouns are:—

  1. vowels: abka heaven, muke water, kesi favour, olo hemp, huncu sledge, boo house, buhū stag.
  2. n: morin horse, banin nature.
  3. ka, ko, ku, kū, ho, indicating mostly names of instruments and utensils: ujika, bow case; oboko washing basin; hujuku bellows; forikū drum; corho funnel; but also tacikū school.
  4. ha, he, ge, han, hen, gan, gen, gon: sujaha tent peg; suhe, suhen commentary, nedege news; hūsihan petticoat; hūrgan large net; turigen wages; bodogon intention.
  5. ba: hondoba whip lash; dulimba middle.
  6. bun: ulabun tradition.
  7. si, ci, cin: yafasi gardener; aduci herdsman; jacin second of two brothers.
  8. ra, re, ri, ro, ru, ran, ren, ron: jamaran quarrel; tohoro circle, wheel; heturen cross beam.

The terminations for nouns and adjectives are:—

  1. nggi: inenggi day; etenggi strong.
  2. hiyan, hiyen: acuhiyan slander, calumnious.
  3. hon, hun, hūn, shun, shūn: etuhun power, mighty; ijishūn compliance, compliant.
  4. sun: hūwaliyasun harmony, peaceful.
  5. tu, tun: iletu appearance, clear; iletun sign.
  6. ki, hi, hin: jabšaki luck, lucky; hūlhi stupid; aduhi leather trowsers; lekerki, lekerhi, lekerhin seal.
  7. cu, cun: suilacun anxiety, anxious.
  8. la, lo, le, lan, lon, len: fangkala low; dorolon ceremony.
  9. ju, ji: boihoju terrestrial, spirit of the earth; jiduji quite right; boigoji landlord.

The terminations for adjectives are:—

  1. ngga, nggo, ngge, nggū: moringga riding, doronggo regular; ambalinggū (o) earnest.
  2. (n) ingge: niyalmaingge human.
  3. su, da, do, de: gelesu timid; ubiyada hated.
  4. buru, cuka, cuke: hataburu, hatacuka odious; ferguwecuke wonderful.
  5. saka: ekisaka silent.

Diminutives and augmentatives are formed with the affixes kan, kon, ken, gan, gen, liyan, liyen, cen, si: ambakan somewhat large; biragan a small river; olhokon a little dry; gelfiyeken a little pale; adaliliyan somewhat similar; ambakaliyan a little big; isheliyen rather narrow; suhecen a small axe; ambakasi somewhat big.

Adjectives are transformed into nouns by adding urse (者): tacire urse (學者) the students, the scholars; or by adding ba (place): amba ba greatness.

The plural of nouns (adjectives remain unchanged) is formed:—

  1. by the affixes sa, se, si, so, ta, da, te, ri. These are simply added to the word; a final n (not being part of the root) is dropped (hafanhafasa); but han emperor—hansa. Jui loses final i: juse; omolo final lo: omosi. Thus šabi—šabisa; age, agese; aha—ahasi; monggo—monggoso; ama—amata; eme—emete; mafa—mafari.