Page:A Sanskrit primer (1901).djvu/47

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112. Force of cases. 1. The instrumental answers the questions wherewith? and whereby? and expresses accompaniment, agent, or means. 2. The dative denotes the remoter object, and direction. It is also used as dativus commodi ; very frequently also to denote end or purpose. Sometimes (and oftenest with copula omitted) it is predicative, in the sense of 'makes for, tends toward'. 3. The . ablative answers the question whence ? and very frequently denotes cause. 4. The genitive is casus adjectivus, denoting all kinds of belonging (e. g. gen. subjectivus, objectivus, partitivus). 5. The locative denotes the place where, or the time when, an action occurs. It is often used absolutely, in agreement with a participle expressed or understood, as the ablative is used in Latin and the genitive in Greek.

Vocabulary III.

Verbs, á-class:

  • iS (iccháti) wish, desire.
  • kRS (kRSáti) plough.
  • ksip (kSipáti) hurl, cast, throw.
  • die (diedti) show, point out.
  • prach (prcchdti) ask, ask about.
  • viC (viedti) enter.
  • sic (sinedti) drip, drop moisten.
  • srj (srjdti) let go; create,
  • Sjpr (sprcAli) touch; (in certain connections) wash,


  • guh (guhati, § 10I) hide, conceal.
  • sad (sidati, § I0I) sit.

Subst. Masc:

  • kata mat.
  • kunta spear.
  • bala child, boy.
  • marga road, way, street.
  • megha cloud.
  • cara arrow.
  • hasta hand.


  • ksetra field.
  • dhuna money, riches.
  • langala plough.
  • visa poison.
  • sukha fortune.