Page:A biographical dictionary of modern rationalists.djvu/47

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able position and fortune at the Texas bar, but he sacrificed it to his zeal for the abolition of slavery, and was forced to leave the State. He came to England to raise funds for the liberation of the slaves of Texas, and then returned to take part in the great struggle at Boston. He was a remarkable linguist, having a command of thirty-two languages, including Sanscrit, Hebrew, Chinese, Greek, and Latin. He invented a universal language (called "Alwato") and a universal religion, which he expounds in his Basic Outline of Universology (1872) and The Church and Religion of the Future (1886). Andrews, who con tributed frequently to the New York Truthseeker, was a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Ethnological Society. D. May 21, 1886.

Angell, Norman. See Lane, R. N. A.

Angiulli, Professor Andrea, Italian Positivist. B. Feb. 12, 1837. Ed. Naples and Berlin Universities. After a few years as professor of anthropology at Bologna, Angiulli was in 1876 appointed to the chair of paedagogy at Naples University. He is head of the Neapolitan Positivist School, and has written many works on philosophy and education. In La Filosofia e la Ricerca Positiva (1869) he says: "The new religious consciousness will be superior to Catholicism, Protestantism, and Christianity, because it will be the Religion of Humanity" (p. 150).

Annet, Peter, Deist. B. 1693. Annet was one of the blunt, courageous men of the early eighteenth century who dared to provoke critical reflection on religion in an age of tyranny. He was a schoolmaster at Liverpool, but in 1739 he issued a pamphlet (Judging for Ourselves, or Freethinking the Great Duty of Religion) in which he boldly attacked Christianity. This was followed by others, and he lost his position. He came to London, and was for years one of the most outspoken spirits of the Robin Hood Society. In 1761 he founded a periodical, The Free Inquirer, and for its "blasphemies" he was, at the age of sixty-eight, condemned to the pillory and a year's hard labour. He afterwards kept a small school. Annet invented a system of shorthand. D. Jan. 18, 1769.

Annunzio, Gabriele d', Italian poet, novelist, and tragedian. B. 1863. Up to the age of sixteen D'Annunzio did not attend school, yet in that year, when he first came under a teacher, he published his first volume of verse (Primo Vere, 1879), including translations from the Latin, which brought great praise from the critics. Five further volumes appeared in the next ten years. In 1889 he published his first novel, Il Piacere, and was at once recognized as a remarkable artist. His earlier novels show the influence of Bourget and Maupassant. The later novels (Il Trionfo della Morte, etc.) follow rather the standard and spirit of the Russian school; while his tragedies and dramas suggest the Greek spirit and seek to restore Greek ideals to the stage. He is generally recognized in Italy as the greatest writer since the Renaissance, and the literary movement he leads is known as the Renaissance (Risorgimento). He is, however, as much concerned with a philosophy as an art, and it is purely pagan, disdainful of all religion. D'Annunzio aims at "the re-establishment of the worship of man"; not in the religious and ethical sense of the Positivists, but in the sense of an appreciation of beauty and power and culture. His bravery and endurance during the War sufficiently answered those who spoke of him as " decadent." He is one of the most artistic writers in Europe.

Anthony, Susan Brownell, American reformer. B. (of Quaker parents) Feb. 15, 1820. Miss Anthony taught in a New York school from 1835 to 1850, and in the later forties she began to take a prominent part in the Abolitionist, Temperance, and