1898. The oldest and most important work on poetics is the Nāṭya Çāstra of Bharata, which probably goes back to the sixth century A.D. (ed. in Kāvyamālā, No. 42, Bombay, 1894; ed. by Grosset, Lyons, 1897). Daṇḍin's Kāvyādarça (end of sixth century) contains about 650 çlokas (ed. with trans. by Böhtlingk, Leipsic, 1890). Vāmana's Kāvyālaṃkāravṛitti, probably eighth century (ed. Cappeller, Jena, 1875). Çṛingāra-tilaka, or "Ornament of Erotics," by Rudrabhaṭa (ninth century), ed. by Pischel, Kiel, 1886 (cf. Journal of German Or. Soc., 1888, p. 296 ff., 425 ff.; Vienna Or. Journal, ii. p. 151 ff.). Rudraṭa Çatānanda's Kāvyālaṃkāra (ed. in Kāvyamālā) belongs to the ninth century. Dhanaṃjaya's Daçarūpa, on the ten kinds of drama, belongs to the tenth century (ed. Hall, 1865; with comm. Nirṇaya Sāgara Press, Bombay, 1897). The Kāvyaprakāça by Mammaṭa and Alaṭa dates from about 1100 (ed. in the Pandit, 1897). The Sāhityadarpaṇa was composed in Eastern Bengal about 1450 A.D., by Viçvanātha Kavirāja (ed. J. Vidyāsāgara, Calcutta, 1895; trans. by Ballantyne in Bibl. Ind.).
The only work dealing with this subject as a whole is Thibaut's Astronomie, Astrologie und Mathematik, in Bühler-Kielhorn's Encyclopædia, 1899 (full bibliography). See also Cantor, Geschichte der Mathematik, pp. 505-562, Leipsic, 1880. Mathematics are dealt with in special chapters of the works of the early Indian astronomers. In algebra they attained an eminence far exceeding anything ever achieved by the Greeks. The earliest works of scientific Indian astronomy (after about 300 A.D.) were four treatises called Siddhāntas; only one, the Sūryasiddhānta (ed. and trans. by Whitney, Journ. Am. Or. Soc., vol. vi.), has survived. The doctrines of such early works were