Page:A sketch of the physical structure of Australia.djvu/27

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character seems certainly to have flowed as lava in the open air. It forms a mass of considerable thickness, as shewn in the brooks and ravines, and appears to have been gradually accumulated by successive accessions of melted matter. I infer this from the fact of its including fossil trees, apparently in the position of growth, which seem to have been enveloped, while living, in the lava.

There are two small patches of tertiary travertinous limestones: one mentioned by Mr. Darwin, and found in the outskirts of Hobarton, where it appears to have been tilted by the intrusion of an adjacent mass of trap; another in a little cove called James's Bay, about three miles above Hobarton, on the opposite side of the Derwent. It rests here nearly horizontally, and is but little elevated above the level of the sea. A Helix and a Bulimus, and the leaves and portions of the stems of several plants, have been found in each locality.

Fossils from James's Bay.

Plants, unnamed : one figured by Morris.

There are very thick masses of gravel, consisting of pebbles as large as the fist, accumulated on the sides of the Derwent River at some places, and Count Strzelecki mentions great accumulations of loose sand, from beneath which he procured a large Cypræa. This was at Newton, a short distance from Hobarton.

B. Norfolk Bay and Tasman's Peninsula.

The principal mass of Tasman's Peninsula appears to be columnar greenstone, forming the highest and most rugged of its hills, and the gigantic perpendicular cliffs of Cape Raoul and the intermediate shores round the entrance to Port Arthur. Just to the eastward of the mouth of that harbour, a mass of the sandstone of the palæozoic formation, a quarter of a mile across and 200 feet high, may be seen resting against these perpendicular cliffs of columnar greenstone with its beds quite horizontal and apparently unaltered.

Point Puer, one of the projections inside the port is composed