Professor Blumentritt has endeavored to assign it a definite ethnographic meaning, which, it is to be hoped, American writers will adopt (Ausland, 1882, and in the “Alphabetic List,” already mentioned). Special studies are given on the Calingas (Ausland, 1891); the Ilocanes (ibid., 1885); the Tinguianes (Mittheilungen of the Vienna Geographical Society, 1887); the Ilongotes (Globus, 1886, and ibid., 1893); the Zambals (ibid., 1886); and the Gaddanes and Ibilaos (Mittheilungen of the Anthropological Society of Vienna, 1884).
The Tagals and Bicols.—The ancient customs of the Tagals, from the manuscript of Juan de Placencia, are narrated by Professor Blumentritt (Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, 1893), and their creation myths also are related (Globus, 1893). Interesting facts about the Bicols, from Father Castaño, are added (Mittheilungen of the Vienna Geographical Society, 1896).
The Bisayas.—Under this vague term we may include the natives of Mindanao and the central islands. Those of Mindanao have been studied by Professsor Blumentritt in various articles (Mittheilungen of the Vienna Geographical Society, 1886; ibid., 1891; Petermann’s Mittheilungen, 1891; Globus, vol. 71; Ausland, 1890; Zeitschrift für Erdkunde, 1896). To the natives of Palawan, several articles have been devoted (Deutsche Rundschau, 1884; Globus, 1891). The Manguianes of Mindoro, so vividly described by Professor Worcester, are depicted in an earlier notice (Globus, 1886, and also vol. 69); as are also the mountain-dwellers of the island Negros (Mittheilungen of the Vienna Geographical Society, 1890), and the natives of the Marine islands (Globus, 1884).
The Moros.—The Sulu islands and their Mohammedan inhabitants are the subjects of papers by Professor Blumentritt in the Boletin of the Geographical Society of Madrid, 1891, and in Globus, 1880, 1881, 1882. They should be the more carefully considered, as these piratical fanatics offer the most serious problem in the pacification of the islands.
This list gives but an inadequate account of this author’s pro-