494 AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [n. s., i, 1899
justice are peace, equity, equality, liberty, and charity, for which all courts as well as all ecclesiastical bodies are organized.
Corporations for the Promotion of Expression. — At first sight these incorporations may seem to be hopelessly involved with corporations which have knowledge for their purpose, but on more careful consideration it will be seen that schools, which perform the double function of organizations for knowledge and expression, are in practice clearly differentiated. Of course schools for expression cannot succeed without considering the knowledge to be expressed, nor can schools designed for the increase of knowledge succeed in their purpose without consider- ing how knowledge may be expressed. In America this differ- entiation is well recognized by the common practice of calling the elementary schools "grammar schools." In these grammar schools the primary object is expression ; the ancillary object is thought to be expressed. The purposes cannot be divorced, be- cause expression and knowledge are concomitant ; but we con- sider the primary object of the grammar schools to be expression. The teacher who supposes that he can teach language with- out teaching the nature of the knowledge to be expressed, will fail utterly. So that the teaching of language or expression re- solves itself into the best, method of expressing judgments and concepts, and before expression can be taught the nature of these judgments and concepts must be understood, that knowledge and habit of correct expression may be inculcated. The organizations which are designed to secure expression are therefore the common schools of the country, or, as they are often designated, the grammar schools of the country, including the modern organiza- tion of kindergartens.
High schools, colleges, and universities consider the knowl- edge obtained to be their purpose, yet they do not neglect ex- pression ; in fact, it is only of late years that knowledge has become their primary purpose, and expression but an ancillary purpose. Originally such schools were organized for the study of