620 THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY
the expelled colonist upon the black list. The chief claim upon the colonies is by people in the same district ; but if there is extra room, outsiders may be received.
Orphans. When children are cared for in institutions, they are kept in a foundling's home till two years old ; from two to five years of age, in a Pflegehaus ; and during the school years, from six to fourteen, in a children's home. Whenever possible, however, the children are brought up in families. During the earlier years the municipality pays 2.50 to 2.80 marks per week for nursing them. A committee of ladies has the duty of visit- ing the children once a month to criticise, and to help and instruct as to the care they should receive. When the children are older, they are placed in families in the country. For their care the municipality pays 10 marks, or, in case of those harder to care for, 12-15 marks. The children are taught to work, but are not made slaves of. Some responsible person, usually a minister or a schoolmaster, who lives in the neighborhood (not more than ten kilometers away), has direct supervision of the care and treatment which the children receive. In Hamburg the girls are trained for domestic service, and the boys are apprenticed to some trade. Though at work before they are twenty-one years of age, they remain under the supervision of the charity bureau until that time.
The aged poor are usually cared for in "homes." Twelve cities presented examples of such institutions, Dresden exhibiting five: two for women, one for men especially tradesmen one for both sexes, and one for aged couples. Dortmund exhibited the regulations for her old-age pension fund. Breslau showed plans of the home for incapacitated domestic servants. It may be repeated here that it is for the amelioration of the conditions of people who are in this category that the imperial insurance against invalidism and old age is designed.
Defectives. The exposition devoted very little space to this class. Berlin exhibited photographs of an institution for the care of epileptics, and specimens of the work done by the inmates. A home for the feeble-minded was also shown by Berlin, together with educational apparatus. Besides these are