Page:An Exposition of the Old and New Testament (1828) vol 2.djvu/13

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We have now before us, the history of the Jewish nation, in this book, and those that follow it to the end of the book of Esther. These books, to the end of the books of the Kings, the Jewish writers call, the first book of the prophets, to bring them within the distribution of the books of the Old Testament, into the law, the prophets, and the Chetubim, or Hagiographa, Luke 24. 44. The rest they make part of the Hagiographa. For though history is their subject, it is justly supposed that prophets were their penmen: to those books that are purely and properly prophetical the name of the prophet is prefixed, because the credibility of the prophecies depended much upon the character of the prophets; but these historical books, it is probable, were collections of the authentic records of the nation, which some of the prophets (the Jewish Church was for many ages more or less continually blessed with such) were divinely directed and helped to put together for the service of the Church to the end of the world; as their other officers, so their Historiographers, had their authority from Heaven.——It should seem that though the substance of the several histories was written when the events were fresh in memory, and written under a divine direction, yet that under the same direction, they were put into the form in which we now have them, by some other hand, long afterward probably, all by the same hand, or about the same time. The grounds of the conjecture are, l. Because former writings are so often referred to, as the Book of Jasher, Josh. 10. 13. and 2 Sam. 1. 18. and the Chronicles of the Kings of Israel and Judah often; and the books of Gad, Nathan, and Iddo. 2. Because the days when the things were done, are spoken of sometimes as days long since passed; as 1 Sam. 9. 9, He that is now called a prophet, was then called a seer. And 3. Because we so often read of things remaining unto this day, as stones. Josh. 4. 9.7. 26.8. 29.10. 27. 1 Sam. 6. 18. Names of places. Josh. 5. 9.7. 26. Judg. 1. 26.15. 19.18. 12. 2 Kings 14. 7. Rights and possessions, Judg. 1. 21. 1 Sam. 27. 6. Customs and usages, 1 Sam. 5. 5. 2 Kings 17. 41. Which clauses have been since added to the history by the inspired collectors, for the confirmation and illustration of it to those of their own age. And if one may offer a mere conjecture, it is not unlikely that the historical books to the end of the Kings were put together by Jeremiah the prophet a little before the captivity, for it is said of Ziklag, 1 Sam. 27. 6. it pertains to the kings of Judah (which style began after Solomon, and ended in the captivity) unto this day: And it is still more probable that those which follow, were put together by Ezra the scribe, some time after the captivity. However, though we are in the dark concerning their authors, we are in no doubt concerning their authority; they were a part of the oracles of God, which were committed to the Jews, and were so received and referred to by our Saviour and the apostles. In the five books of Moses we had a very full account of the rise, advance, and constitution, of the Old Testament Church, the family out of which it was raised, the promise, that great charter by which it was incorporated, the miracles by which it was built up, and the laws and ordinances by which it was to be governed. From which one would conceive an expectation of its character and state very different from what we find in this history. A nation that had statutes and judgments so righteous, one would think, should have been very holy; and that had promises so rich, should have been very happy. But, alas! a great part of the history is a melancholy representation of their sins and miseries, for the law made nothing perfect; that was to be done by the bringing in of a better hope. And yet if we compare the history of the Christian Church with its constitution, we shall find the same cause for wonder, so many have been its errors and corruptions; for neither does the Gospel make any thing perfect in this world, but leaves us still in the expectation of a better hope in the future state.

II. We have next before us the book of Joshua, so called, perhaps, not because it was written by him, for that is uncertain.[1] However that be, it is written concerning him, and if any other wrote it, it was collected out of his journals, or memoirs. It contains the history of Israel under the command and government of Joshua, how he presided as general of their armies, 1. In their entrance into Canaan, ch. 1 •• 5. 2. In their conquest of Canaan, ch. 6 •• 12. 3. In the distribution of the land of Canaan among the tribes of Israel, ch. 13 •• 21. 4. In the settlement and establishment of religion among them, ch. 22 •• 24. In all which he was a great example of wisdom, courage, fidelity, and piety, to all that are in places of public trust. But that is not all the use that

  1. Dr. Lightfoot thinks that Phinehas wrote it. Bishop Patrick is clear that Joshua wrote it himself.

Vol. II.——B.