utu, to strike; second, nageru, to throw; third, suru, to do, or make.
1. Active Voice.
When the verbs are used in conversation, u of the verbs of the first kind is substituted by i, and masu in an affirmative sentence, or masen in a negative sentence is added, as utimasu or utimasen; ru of that of the second is taken away, and masu or masen is put, as nagemasu or nagemasen; uru of that of the third is substituted by i, and masu or masen is added, as simasu or simasen.
2. Passive Voice.
In the case of passive voices, u of the verb of the first kind is substituted by are, and masu or masen; as, Utare masu, Are or is beaten. This rule applies to the verbs of the second kind; as, Nagerare masu, Is or are thrown down. Uru of that of the third kind is substituted by erare, and masu or masen is added; as, Kerai ni serare masu, He is, or they are, made a servant or servants.
Verbs have five moods—the Indicative, Potential, Subjunctive, Imperative, and Infinitive.
- The Indicative Mood is the simple affirmation of a fact; as, Watakusi ga mimasu, I see (it).
- The Potential Mood expresses the power of doing