for the rising and falling of tones, which also subserve a very important semantic function and exert great influence in bringing about a change in language. These changes in tones may be advantageously represented by rising and falling curves, supplemented by numbers to denote the number of matras included in the tone All this, of course, will be supported by gramophone records, so that the observation of sounds may be tested and verified as often as desired. Germans are now studying Indian languages in this way, but specimens supplied to them are said to be vitiated by their being reproductions of made-up speeches learned by rote beforehand, and not representations of naturally spoken sounds. This defect may be avoided.
One more aspect of the modern study of languages is its insistence on the psychological and ideological in-