digham from military confinement. He was defeated as the Democratic candidate for lieutenant-governor in 1863, and for congress in 1864. In 1873 he was elected to the State constitutional convention, but declined to serve.
PUGH, James Lawrence, senator, b. in Burke county, Ga., 12 Dec., 1820. In early years he removed with his family to Alabama, where he received a collegiate education, studied law, and was admitted to the bar. He began to practise in Eufaula, Ala., was a presidential elector in 1848 and 1856, and was then elected to congress as a Democrat, serving from 5 Dec., 1859, till 21 Jan., 1861, when he retired, on the secession of his state. He was a delegate from Alabama to the house of representatives in the 1st and 3d Confederate congresses, serving from 22 Feb., 1802, till the surrender in 1865. He also served as a private in the Confederate army, and after the war again practised law. Mr. Pugh was president of the Democratic state convention of 1874, a member of the Constitutional convention of 1875, and a presidential elector again in 1876. He was elected a U. S. senator from Alabama for the term ending in 1885, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of George S. Houston, and was re-elected for the term ending 3 March, 1891, also for the term following.
PULASKI, Kazimierz (or Casimir), Polish soldier, b. in Podolia, 4 March, 1748; d. near Savannah, Ga., 11 Oct., 1779. He was the eldest son of Joseph Pulaski, founder of the confederation of Barr. He received a thorough education and served in the guard of Duke Charles, of Courland. In 1767 he returned to Poland and joined his father as one of the eight original associates of the confederation of Barr, 29 Feb., 1768. He continued to carry on a partisan warfare after the arrest and death of his father. He raised a revolt in Lithuania in 1769, and, although he was driven into the fortified monastery of Czenstochova, he finally compelled the besieging Russian army to withdraw. He helped to drive the Russians across the Vistula, but opposed the plans of the French commissioner, François Dumouriez, and refused to join the main army, thus causing the loss of the battle of Landskron in 1770. He was then elected commander-in-chief, but was defeated, and returned to Czenstochova. He has been accused of planning the abduction of King Stanislas Poniatowski from Warsaw, but modern historians have cleared him of all participation in it. The plot had for its result the intervention of Prussia and Austria, and led ultimately to the partition of Poland in 1773. Pulaski's estates were confiscated, he was outlawed, and a price was set on his head. He escaped to Turkey, but, failing to obtain succor from the sultan, went to Paris toward the close of 1775. He had there several interviews with Benjamin Franklin, and, becoming interested in the American struggle for independence, came to this country in March, 1777. He proceeded immediately to Philadelphia, and was attached to the staff of Washington.
The first action in which he took part was at the Brandywine. When the Continental troops began to yield, he made a reconnoissance with the general's bodyguard, and reported that the enemy were endeavoring to cut off the line of retreat. He was authorized to collect as many of the scattered troops as came in his way, and employ them according to his discretion, which he did in a manner so prompt as to effect important aid in the retreat of the army. Four days later, on recommendation of Washington, he was commissioned brigadier-general, and placed in charge of the cavalry. He saved the army from a surprise at Warren tavern, near Philadelphia, took part in the battle of Germantown, and in the winter of 1777-'8 engaged in the operations of Gen. Anthony Wayne, contributing to the defeat of a British division at Haddonfield, N. J. The cavalry officers could not be reconciled to the orders of a foreigner who could scarcely speak English and whose ideas of discipline and tactics differed widely from those to which they had been accustomed, and these circumstances induced Pulaski to resign his command in March, 1778, and return to Valley Forge, where he was assigned to special duty. At his suggestion, which was adopted by Washington, congress authorized the formation of a corps of lancers and light infantry, in which even deserters and prisoners of war might enlist. This corps, which became famous under the name of Pulaski's legion, was recruited mainly in Baltimore. In September it numbered about 350 men, divided into three companies of cavalry and three of infantry. The poet Longfellow has commemorated in verse this episode of Pulaski's life. In the autumn he was ordered to Little Egg Harbor with his legion, a company of artillery, and a party of militia. A German deserter named Gustav Juliet, who held a subordinate command in the legion and who entertained a grudge against Col. de Bosen, the leader of the infantry, betrayed their whereabouts to the British, who made a night attack upon De Bosen's camp. Pulaski heard the tumult and, assembling his cavalry, repelled the enemy, but the legion suffered a loss of forty men. During the following winter he was stationed at Minisink, N. J. He was dissatisfied with his petty command, and intended to leave the service and return to Europe, but was dissuaded by Gen. Washington. He was ordered to South Carolina, and entered Charleston on 8 May, 1779. The city was invested on the 11th by 900 British from the army of Gen. Prevost. Pulaski made a furious assault upon them, but was repelled. The governor and the city council were inclined to surrender, but Pulaski held the city till the arrival of support on 13 May. Prevost retreated in the night of the same day across Ashley river, and Pulaski, hovering upon the enemy's flanks, harassed them till they evacuated South Carolina. Although he had frequent attacks of malarial fever, he remained in active service, and toward the beginning of September received orders