general conference of the alliance, which, after two postponements on account of the Franco-German war, was held in New York in October, 1873. Dr. Schaff was also, in 1871, one of the alliance delegates to the emperor of Russia to plead for the religious liberty of his subjects in the Baltic provinces. He was president of the American Bible revision committee, which was organized in 1871 at the request of the English committee, and in 1875 he was sent to England to negotiate and arrange terms with the British revisers and the university presses with regard to co-operation and publication of the Anglo-American revision. That same year, in August, he attended a conference of the Old Catholics, Greeks, and Protestants at Bonn, with a view to promote Christian unity among the churches there represented. Dr. Schaff was first president of the newly (1888) organized American society of church history, with its officers representing all the leading branches of the Protestant church; and, in addition to the cultivation of that particular branch of literature to which it is specially devoted, the society aims at unifying Christian thought and sentiment throughout the world. Dr. Schaff's works are mostly historical and exegetical; some of them are written in German, and others in English, but the German ones have been translated. Among the most important are his “History of the Apostolical Church” (New York, 1853); “Sketch of the Political, Social, and Religious Character of the United States” (1855); “Germany, its Universities, Theology, and Religion” (1857); “History of the Christian Church” (6 vols., 1858-'88); “German Hymn-Book, with Introduction and Notes” (1859; ed. with music, 1874); “The Christ of the Gospels” (1864); “The Person of Christ, with Replies to Strauss and Renan” (1865); “Lectures on the Civil War and the Overthrow of Slavery in America” (1865); “Christ in Song” (1869); “Revision of the English Version of the New Testament” (1874); “The Vatican Council” (1875); “History and Collection of the Creeds of Christendom” (3 vols., 1876); “Harmony of the Reformed Confessions” (1877); “Through Bible Lands” (1878); “Dictionary of the Bible” (1880); “Library of Religious Poetry,” edited in conjunction with Arthur Gilman; “Companion to the Greek Testament and the English Version” (1883; 3d revised ed., 1888); “Historical Account of the Work of the American Committee of Revision of the English Version” (1885); “Christ and Christianity” (1885); and “Church and State in the United States, or the American Idea of Religious Liberty and its Practical Effects, with Official Documents” (New York, 1888). He edited the Anglo-American adaptation of Lange's “Critical, Theological, and Homiletical Commentary on the Bible” (begun in 1864, 24 vols., New York and Edinburgh), and the “International Revision Commentary on the New Testament” (begun in 1881). Dr. Schaff founded and edited the “ Kirchenfreund,” the first German monthly in this country, and, with Prof. Henry B. Smith, edited the “Philosophical and Theological Library,” a series of volumes begun in 1873 (New York and London). He contributed articles to American and foreign reviews, and to Herzog's, Smith's, and other encyclopedic works. See Life by his son (1897).
SCHANCK, John Stilwell, educator, b. near Freehold, N. J., 24 Feb., 1817; d. in Princeton, 16 Dec., 1898. He was graduated at Princeton, and at the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania in 1843, settled in Princeton, and followed the practice of his profession there until 1865. In 1847 he was called to the curatorship of the college museum and to give lectures on anatomy, physiology, and zoölogy. In 1855-'6 he instructed the senior class in chemistry, and in 1857 he was elected to succeed John Torrey in the professorship. Under his direction the course was enlarged and extended, and he lectured on anatomy, physiology, chemistry, and hygiene. He was a member of various scientific societies, and received the degree of LL. D. from Lafayette.
SCHANK, John, British naval officer, b. in Fifeshire, Scotland, in 1740: d. in Dawlish, England, 6 March, 1823. He entered the royal navy when young, was a lieutenant in 1776, and was employed on the lakes during the Revolutionary war, constructing in less than six weeks the “Inflexible,” which defeated Gen. Benedict Arnold's fleet on Lake Champlain, and displaying ability as a seaman. His talents as an engineer were applied in Gen. John Burgoyne's expedition to the building of floating bridges, and on his return to England he was made a post-captain for his services. He attained the rank of admiral of the blue in 1822. He devised a method of navigating vessels in shallow water by means of sliding keels, besides other ingenious inventions, and was the author of several works on naval architecture.
SCHARF, John Thomas, author, b. in Baltimore, Md., 1 May, 1843; d. 28 Feb., 1898. He entered the counting-house of his father in Baltimore, when sixteen years of age. In the beginning of the civil war he joined a Confederate battery, was engaged in the battles around Richmond in 1862, was wounded at Cedar Mountain, at the second battle of Bull Run, and again at Chancellorsville, and on 20 June, 1863, was appointed a midshipman in the Confederate navy. In January, 1864, he took part in the capture of the steamer “Underwriter,” near New Berne, N. C. He rejoined the army after all the ports were blockaded, and was captured in Maryland while on his way to Canada with despatches. After the war he engaged in mercantile business, then in journalism, and in 1874 was admitted to the bar. In 1878 he was a member of the legislature. Since 1884 he had been a commissioner of the land office of Maryland. Georgetown college gave him the degree of LL. D. in 1885. He had been editor of the Baltimore “Telegram” and “Morning Herald.” Besides many historical addresses and magazine articles, he has published “Chronicles of Baltimore” (Baltimore, 1874); “History of Maryland” (3 vols., 1879); “History of Baltimore City and County” (Philadelphia, 1881); “History of Western Maryland” (2 vols., 1882); “History of St. Louis” (2 vols., 1884); “History of Philadelphia” (3 vols., 1884); “History of Westchester County, N. Y.” (2 vols., 1886); “History of the Confederate States Navy from the Laying of the First Keel to the Sinking of the Last Vessel” (1887; 2d ed., Albany, 1894); “History of the State of Delaware” (1888); and “Natural and Industrial Resources and Advantages of Maryland” (Annapolis, 1892).