Page:Aristotle s Poetics Butcher.djvu/113

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proper attributes; as if we were to call the shield, not 'the cup of Ares,' but 'the wineless cup'.

A newly-coined word is one which has never been even in local use, but is adopted by the poet himself. Some such words there appear to be: as ἐρνύγες (ernyges), 'sprouters,' for κέρατα (kerata), 'horns'; and ἀρητήρ (areter), 'supplicator', for ἱερεύς (hiereus), 'priest.'

A word is lengthened when its own vowel is exchanged for a longer one, or when a syllable is inserted. A word is contracted when some part of it is removed. Instances of lengthening are:—πόληος (poleos) for πόλεως (poleos), Πηληιάδεω (Peleiadeo) for Πηλείδου (Peleidou): of contraction,—κρῖ (kri), δῶ (do), and ὄψ (ops), as in μία γίνεται ἀμφοτέρων ὄψ (mia ginetai amphoteron ops), 'the appearance of both is one.'

An altered word is one in which part of the ordinary form is left unchanged, and part is recast: as in δεξιτερὸν κατὰ μαζόν (dexiteron kata mazon), 'on the right breast,' δεξιτερόν (dexiteron) is for δεξιόν (dexion).

Nouns in themselves are either masculine, feminine, or neuter. Masculine are such as end in ν (N), ρ (R), ς (S), or in some letter compounded with ς (S)—these being two,ψ (PS) and ξ (X). Feminine, such as end in vowels that are always long, namely η (E) and ω (O), and—of vowels that admit of lengthening—those in α (A). Thus the number of letters in which nouns masculine and feminine end is the same; for ψ (PS) and ξ (X) are equivalent to endings in ς (S). No noun ends in a mute or a vowel short by nature. Three only end in ι (I)—μέλι (meli), 'honey'; κόμμι (kommi), 'gum'; πέπερι (peperi), 'pepper'; five end in υ (U). Neuter nouns end in these two latter vowels; also in ν (N) and ς (S).


II


The perfection of style is to be clear without being mean. The clearest style is that which uses only current or proper words; at the same time it is mean- witness the poetry of Cleophon and of Sthenelus. That diction,