Page:Aristotle s Poetics Butcher.djvu/135

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Sometimes an expression is metaphorical, as 'Now all gods and men were sleeping through the night,' while at the same time the poet says: 'Often indeed as he turned his gaze to the Trojan plain, he marveled at the sound of flutes and pipes.' 'All' is here used metaphorically for 'many,' all being a species of many. So in the verse, 'alone she hath no part... , οἴη (oie), 'alone' is metaphorical; for the best known may be called the only one.

Again, the solution may depend upon accent or breathing. Thus Hippias of Thasos solved the difficulties in the lines, δίδομεν δέ οἱ εὖχος ἀρέσθαι’ καὶ ‘τὸ μὲν οὗ καταπύθεται ὄμβρῳ (didomen (didomen) de hoi, and to men hou (ou) kataputhetai ombro).

Or again, the question may be solved by punctuation, as in Empedocles: 'Of a sudden things became mortal that before had learnt to be immortal, and things unmixed before mixed.'

Or again, by ambiguity of meaning, as παρῴχηκεν δὲ πλέω νύξ (parocheken de pleo nux), where the word πλέω (pleo) is ambiguous.

Or by the usage of language. Thus any mixed drink is called οἶνος (oinos), 'wine'. Hence Ganymede is said