of the East was divided between Dyotheletism, which recognised two Wills in Christ, and Monotheletism, which fuses the two into one. The decisive moment in the controversy came in 633, when Cyrus of Alexandria promulgated his Nine Articles, by which Monotheletism became incumbent on the orthodox. Now the book of Barlaam is distinctly Dyotheletic in tendency, and by this subtle means we are therefore led by M. Zotenberg to the conclusion that its date must be anterior at least to the year 633. On the other hand, a terminus a quo is given for the book by the fact that the Convent of St. Saba was refounded by that Saint in the year 491.
M. Zotenberg went a step further in determining the age of the book by a careful examination of the historical background involved in it. The Religions of the world are stated to be three: Idolatry, Judaism, Christianity. Hence M. Zotenberg infers that the book was written previous to the marvellous spread of Islam in the seventh century. And in the particular form of Idolatry professed by Abenner, King of the Indians and father of Joasaph, clear reference is to be found in the tenets of