Page:Black's Law Dictionary (Second Edition).djvu/1070

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SCUTAGE

made by a tenant by lmight-service in lieu of actual service. 2 Bl. Comm. 74.

A pecuniary aid or tribute originally reserved by particular lords. instead or in lieu of personal service. varying in amount according to the expenditure which the lord bad to incur in his personal attendance upon the king in his wnrs. Wright, Ten. 121- 134.

SCUTAGIO HABENDO. A writ that anciently lay against tenants by knights service to serve tn the wars, or send sulficlent persons, or pay a certain sum. Fitzh. Nat. Brer. 83.

SOUTH. A French col.u of gold, coined A. D. 1-127 of the value of 3s. 4d.

SCUT1-JLLA. A scuttle: nnything of a flnt or brood shape like a shield. Cowell.

—Seutel.‘la eleemosynarin. An nlms—basket.

SCUTIPER. In old records. the same ns “n1-miger." Spelman.

Esquire; SCUTUM ARMORUM. A shield or coat of arms. Conell.

SCYRA. In old English law. county; the inhabitants of a county.

Shirei

SCYREGEMOTE. In Saxon law. The meeting or cuuit of the shire. This was the most important court in the Saxon polity, having jurisdiction or hoth ecclesiastical and secular causes. Its meetings were held twice in the year. Its Latin nnme was "curia comi.taii.9."

SE D]-IPENDENDO. Lat. In defending himself; in self-defense. Homicide committed se defendendo is excusable.

SEA. The ocean; the great Lnnss of water which surrounds the land. U. S. v. Rod- gers, 150 U. S. 249, 14 Sup. Ct. 109. 37 L. Ed. 1071: De Lovio v. Boit. T Fed. Cas. 428; Cole v. White. 26 Wend. (N. Y) 516: Snow- don v. Gulon, 50 N. Y. Super Ct. 143.

—Be'yond sea. In England, this phrase means beyond the limits of the British Isles: in America, outside the limits of the United States or of the ].iIRl‘l.‘i(‘lllfll‘ state, as the case may he. —Hig]i seas. The ocean: puhlio waters. According to the English doctrine, the high sea. begins at the distance of three miles from the coast of any country; according to the American view, at low-water mark, except in the case of small liarhols and rondsteads icnlosed within the fauces tents. Ross v. Mc- Int_\re 140 U. S. 453. 11 Sup. Ct 897. 35 L. Ed. 581; U. S. v. Grush. 26 Fed. Cns. 50; L. S. v. Rodgers. 150 U. S. 2-19. 14 Sup. Ct. 109. 37 L. Ed. 1071; Ex parte By:-is (D. C.) 32 Fed. 4%‘). he open ocean outside of the Jaowcs tc'n—a:, as distinguished from aims of the sea; the waters of the ocean nithout the houndary of any county. Any watt-.i:zi on the sea-coast which are nithoiit the boundaries of low-water mark.—1VInin sea. The open. unicnlosed ocean: or that portion of the sea which is without the faiwes tern: on the sea-coast, in

1062

SEAL

gontradistinction to that which is surrounded oi inclosed between narrow headlnnds or promontories. People v. Richmond County, 73 N. Y. 396: U. S. v. Grush, 26 Fed. Cas. 48; U. S. V. Rodgers. 150 U. S. 249. 14 Sup. Ct. 10‘). 37 L. Ed. I071: Baker v. Hoag, N. Y. 561. 3!) Am. Dec. 431: 2 East. P. O. c. 17. § 10. Sea.- battex-ies. Assaults by masters in the met- chant service u-pon seamen at sen.—Sea-bed. All that portion of land under the sea that lies beyond the Sea~Slio1'e.—Sea;-brief. See Sm- I_.E'ri‘ini.—Sea.-greens. In the Scotch law. Grounds overfloned by the sea in spring tidtl Bell.—Sea-laws. Laws relating to the sea, as the laws of Oleron, etc.—Sear1etter. A species of manifest, containing :1 description of the ship's cargo, with the port from which it comes and the -port of destination. This is one of the documents necessary to be carried by all neutral vessels. in the merchant service. in time of war, as an evidence of their nationality. 4 Kent. Comm. 157. See Sleght v. Hurtshorne, 2 Johns. (N. Y.) 540.—Sea-reeve. An officar in maritime towns and places who took care of the maritime rights of the lord of the manor, and watched the shore, and collected ivrcclis for the lord. '].‘on1lins.—Sea rovers. Piratrs and robbers at sea.—Sea-shore. The margin of the sea in its usual and ordinary state. When the tide 15 out, low-uater mark is the margin of the sea: and. rrhi-n the sea is full, the margin is high-water mark. The sea-shore is therefore all the ground between the ordinary high- water mnrk and low-water mark. It cannot be considered as including any ground alwa-ii covered by the sea, for then it would have no definite limit on the sea-hoard. Neither can it include anv part of the upland, for thr same reason. Stoi-er v. Freeman. 6 Mass. 439. 4 Am. Dec. 155: Church v. l\lcel<ar. 34 Conn. 424 That space of land over which the waters of the sen are spread in the highest water during the Winter season. Civ. Code La. art. 442.

-—Seaworfl-iy, Snaworthiness. See those titles. SEAL. An impression upon Wax, wafer.

or some other tennclous substance capable of being impressed. Allen v. Sullivan R. Co., 32 N. H. 449; Solon v. Willlamsburgh Siiv. Bank, 114 N. Y. 132, 21 N. E. 163; Ali; V. Stoker. 127 Mo. 471, 30 S. W. 132; Brad- ford v. Randall. 5 Pick. (l\-lass.) 497: Osborn v. Klstler. 35 Ohio St. 1 ., Hopewell Tp. v. Ainnell Tp., 6 N. J law, 175; Jones v. Lognood, 1 Wash. W11.) 43.

A seal is a particular sign. made to attest in the most formal manner, the execution of nn instrument. Code Civ. Proc Cal. 5 1930.

Marlin defines ll. seal to ‘be a plate of metal with a flat surface, on which is engraved the arms of a princo or nation, or private individ- ual, or other device, with whidi an impression may he made on wax or other siihstance on paper or parchment in order to authenticate them. The impression thus made is also called a “seal." Répert. mat “Seca-ii.”

—Commnn seal. A seal adopted and used bya corporation for authenticating its corporate acts and executing legal inatruments.—Co1-porate seal. The officlal or common seal of an incorpo- rated company or assnciation.—Gx-eat leal. In English law. A sea] by virtue of which a great part of the roviil authority is exercised. The office of the lord chancellor, or lord keeper, is created by the delivery of the great seal into his custodv. There is one great seal for all pnhlic acts of state which concern the United King- dom. Mozlev & Whitley. In American law, the United States and also each of the states has and uses a seal, always carefully described hy law, and sometimes oficially called the

"great" seal, in some instahcm known