Page:Black's Law Dictionary (Second Edition).djvu/211

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CITIZENSHIP

word adheres closely to its original meaning. as shown by its derivation. (cii:i'.s, a free in- lnlnitzint of a city.) When it is designed to designate an inhahitant of the country, or one ameiiiihie to the iavrs of the nation, “subJect" is the word there employed.

CITIZENSHIP. The status of being a citizen, (q. 12.)

CITY. In England. An incorporated town or borough which is or has heeii the see of a bishop. Co. Litt. 108; 1 Bl. Comm. ii4: Cowell. State v. Green, 126 N. C. 1032. ".5 S. E. 462.

A large town incorporated with certnin

privileges. The inhahitante of a city. The ritizclis. Worcester. In America. A city is a municipal cor-

poration of a larger class, the distinctive feature of whose organization is its government by a chief executive (usually caiied “muyor") and a legislative body. composed of representatives of the citizens, (nsually called a council‘‘ or "hoard of aiderrnen,") mid other officers having speoiiii functions. Wight Co. v. Woiflf. 112 Ga. 169, 37 S. E. 39.7.

CITY OF LONDON COURT. A court lining a local jurisdiction within the city of Loiidnn. It is to all intents rind purposes a county court, having the same jurisdiction rind procedure.

CIUDADES. Sp. In Spanish law. cities: illstiuguished from towns (puebios) and vii- lages (viiias.) [Iart v. Burnett, 15 Cal. 537.

CIVIL. In its originni sense, this word iiieiins pertaining or appropriate to a memi-er of a ciritas or tree politicui community: natural or proper to a oil.‘-i.2€n.. Also. reintiii: to the community, or to the poiicy and Aivernmeut of the citizens and subjects of a state

in the language of the law. it has various siiznificiitions. In contradlstinction to bar- l-mous or savage, it Indicates a state of so- iipty reduced to order and regular government‘, thus, we speak of civil life, civli so- vlcty, civil government, and civil iiiierty. lu contradistinetion to criminal, it indicates Ihe privnte rights and remedies of men, as mnihers of the communltv. in contrast to liinse which are public and relate to the gov- rninient; thus, we spcalr of civil process mid criminal process. civil jurisdiction and criminal jurisdiction.

ii is also used in contradistinction to military or ecclesiastical. to natural or foreign; IIM, we speak of a civil station, as opposed l" a mliiturv or an eccieslasticrii station: a -liii death, as opposed to a natural death; a |'I\II war, as opposed to a foreign war. Sto- ry. Coast. a 791.

—CiviI responsibility. The lishiiity to he '-ilod upon to respond to on action at iziw for lli injury caused by a deiict or crime, as op-

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203

CIVIL DAMAGE ACTS

posed to criminal responsibility. orliuhility to he proceeded agniii.-at in a Cl'lulIll.’iI trihiinsil.—civlI side. Whcu the siime court has jurisdiction or hoth civil and criminal matters, proceuiiiigs of the first ciass are often said to be on the civil side; those of the second. on the criminal side.

As to civil “Commotion," "Coi-iiorritioiis." “De:ith." “Injury," "Liberty," "0l:iig- i'nii," "Oi‘l3cer," "Remedy,” "Rights," and "War," see those titles.

CIVIL ACTION. In the civil law. A personni uction which is instituted to (‘Olli- pel payment, or the doing some other dim which is purely civil.

At common law. As distinguished from a crimimzl action. it is one which seeks the establishment. recovery, or redress of pri- D vate and civil rights.

Civil suits relate to and afiect, as to the parties against whom they are hroiishi. only iii- dividual rights which are within their iniii\id- uni controi, and which they may piirt with at their pleasure. enforcement of merely privnte obligations -and duties Criniiniii prosecutions. on the other hand. invoivc public wrongs, or a breach and violation of public rights nnd duties, which affect the whole community. considered as such in its social and aggregate ("ipa('Ity. The end

they haie in view is the prevention of similar F

offenses. not atonement or evcpintion for crime committed. Cziiir-onii 17. People, 18 N Y. 1'38

Civil crises are those which invoive disputes or contests between man rind mun, and willr-ii only terminate in the ndjustinent of the rights of plaintiffs and defendants. They include all cases whith cannot iesally he denominated “criminrii c.-isms." Fenstermncher v. State, 19 Or. G 504, 25 Pac. 142.

In coda practice. A civil action is a proceeding in a court of justice in which one party, known as the "plaintiff," demands agninst another party, known as the "defend- H ant." the enforcement or protection of a pri- vate right, or the prevention or redress of a privnte wrong. It may also be brought for the recovery of a p ity or forfeiture. Itev. Code Iowa 1S.'~0. § ‘ I

The distinction between actions nt law and suits in equity, and the forms of aii such actions and suits. heretofore existing. ls niio1- isiied; and there siiaii be in this state. bere- after, but one form of action for the enforcement or protection at privnte rights and the J redress of private wrongs, which shall be de- noininated a "civil action." Code N. Y. 5 G9.


CIVIL BI'LI. COURT. A trihunal in Ire- land with a Jurisdiction anziiogons to that of the county courts in England. The judge of K It is also chair-man of quarter sessions, (wirere the jiirisdiction is more extensive than in England.) and performs the duty of revising barrister. Whirton.

CIVIL DAMAGE ACTS. Acts passed i.n L many of the United States which provide an action for d.'lIIl.'i:.'CS against a Vendor of intoxicating iiquors, (and. in some cases, against his lessor.) on behaif of the wife or friiniiy of a pei'Sul:i who has sustained injuries by rea- M

The design of such suits is the E