as distinguished from those that are open or patent. —Clnse copies. Copies of legal documents which might be written closely or lousel_v_at pieasnre: as dislinguisbed from ofiino _copies, which were to contain only a presi.-ribeii numbcr of iiurds on each sheet.—C1ase corporatlnn. One in which the directors and _oliieers have the power to fill vacancies in their own number, wilhout allowing to the general body of stockholders any choice or vote in their election. Mciiim v. Odom, 3 Biand (Md.) 416, i.inte.—Close ralll. Rolls containing: the record of the close writs (literie |'!I1l‘lL-5(0) and grants of the kin:_:. kept with (be public records. 2 Bl. Comm. 34G.—Close iieaiion. in game and fish laws. ibis term means the season of the year in which the taking of particular game or fish is pruiiiliiterl, or in which all hiinling or fishing it. '1' "t.
is forliidiien by law. Suite v. Tberii 617 4] -‘\tl. 1030. 43 L. R. A. 2.30. in Am. St. (1. - —Close writs. In English law.
Certain le tors of the king. sealed with his great seal, and directed to pnrticiilar persons and for parlicuiar purposes, which. not being proper for public inspection, are cioscti up and se-ileil on the outside, and are thence called “writs vitxse." 2 Bl. Comm. 3-16: Sevieii, Sberiifs, ‘€72. Writs directed to the siieiirt, instead of to the lord. 3 Reeve, Eng. Law. 45.
CLOSE-HAULED. In admiralty law, this nautical term means the arrangement or trim of s vessel's sails when she endenvors to make a progress In the nearest direction possible towards that point of the compass from which the wind blows. But a vessel may be coi.isidei'ed as close-hauled, although she is not quite so near to the ivind us she -rnuid possibly Ile. Chndwick v. Packet Co., 6 El. 8: B1. 771.
CLOTURE. The procedure in delibera- Live assemblies whereby debate is closed. Introduced In the English parliament in the session of 1882.
CLOUD ON TITLE. An outstanding claim or inciimbrance which, if valid, would affect or impair the title of the owner of a particular estate, and which ap|)ai'entl_v and on its face has that effect, but which can be shown by extrinsic proof to be invalid or in- uppliciibie to the estate in question. A con- veyance. mortgage, judgment, tux-levy, etc. may all, In proper cases. constitute a cloud on tltie. Pixiey v. Huggins. 15 Cal. 133; Schenck v. Wicks, 23 Utah. 576, G5 Poc. 732; Lick v. Iiay, 43 Cal. 87; Stoddard v. Prescott. 58 Mich. 542. 25 N. W. 508- Phelps v. Hnu-is. 101 U. S. 370, 25 L Fd. 855: Fonda v. Sage, -18 N. Y. 181; Rigrlon v. Shirk, 127 III. 411, 19 N. E 698; Bissell v. Keiiogg. 60 Barb. (N. Y.) 617: Bank v. Lawler, 46 Conn. 345.
CLOUGH. A valley. Also an siiowance for the turn of the scale, on buying goods wholesale by weight.
CLUB. A voluntary, unincorporated association of persons for purposes of a social, literary, or politicai nature, or the like. A club is not a partnership. 2 Mees. & W. 172.
The word “club" has no veiv definite meaning. Clubs are formed for sii sorts of purposes, and
tbere is no uniformity in their constitutions and rules. It is well known that cinbs exist which limit the number of the members and seii-ct them with great care, which oiin considerable property in ciimmon, and in which the furnishing of food and drink to the members for money is but one of many conveniences which the members enjoy. Com. v. Poinphret. 137 Mass. 567. 50 Am. Iicp. 3-i0.
CLUB-LAW. Iluie of violence; regulation by force; the law of arms.
CLYPEUS, nr GLIPEUS. In old English law. .1 shield; metaphorically one of a no- ble fiiiiiily. (,'l1/rm‘ ziimsliuti, noble fniniiies extinct. Mat. Paris. -163.
CO. A prflx to words, meaning or “in conjunction" or "joint :" (2, a., co trustees. co-executors. Aisn an alibrcviiition for "county," (Gihnan v. Slice-ts. 78 Iowa, -1119, 43 N. W. 299,) and for "coi.upnny," (Railroad Co. v. People, 155 I11. 299, 40 N. E. 599.)
COACH. Coach is a generic term. It In it kind of carriage, and is distinguished from other vehicles, chiefly, as being a covereii box, hung on ieathers, with four wheels Turnpike Co. v. Neil, 9 Ohio, 12; Turupilic Co. v. Frinli, 15 Pick. (Mass.) 444.
COADJUTOR. An assistant, heiper, or aliy; psrticulariy B person appointed to assist a bishop who from age or infirmity is unable to perform his duty. Olcutt v. Gu- bert, S6 Tex. 121, 23 S W. 935. Also an overseer, (coadjutor of an executor,) and one who disseises a person of land not to his own use. but to that of nnothcr.
C0-ADMINISTRATOR. One who is I] joint administrator with one or more others.
COADUNATIO.}} A uniting or combining together of persons; a conspiracy. 9 Coke 56.
COAL NOTE. A species or promissorv note, furincriy in use in the port of London containing the phrase “value received in cools." By the statute 3 Gen. II. c. 26. §§ 'i' 8, these were to be protected and noteii as iniand blils of exchange. But this was 1'9- peaied by the statute 47 Geo. IlI. sess. 2, c. 68, 5 28.
COALITION. In French law. An un- lawful agreement among severai persons not to do a thing except on some conditions agreed upon; pm-ticulariy, industrial combinations, strikes, etc.; a conspiracy.
C0-ASSIGNEE. One of two or more asslguees of the same subject-matter.
COAST. The edge or mnrgm of s country bounding on the sea. It is heid that the term includes smali islands and reefs natu- rally connected with the adjacent land, anal rising above the surface of the water, al- though their composition may not be sul'h-
ciently flrm and stuliie to admit of their be