12 How. 2J9, 13 L. Ed. 996; Trade-Mark Cuses. 100 U. S. 96, 25 L. Ed. 550: Gibbons V. Clgiian. 9 Wheat. 1, 6 L. Ed. 23; Brown v. lilnylnnd, 12 Wheat. 448, 6 L. Ed. 678; Bow- lillll v. Railroad. 125 U. S. 465, 8 Sup. CL 68‘). 31 L. Ed. 700: Leisy v. Hardin, 135 (L S. 100, 10 Sup. Ct. 681, 3-1 L. Ed. 128; Mobile County v. Kimball, 102 U. S. 691. 26 L Ed. 238; Corfield v. Coryell. 6 Fed. Cos. Tim: Fuller v. Railroad Co.. 31 Iowa. 207 i..~n-uger Cases, 7 How. 401. 12 L. Ed. 702; itubblns v. Shelby County Taxing Dist, 120 U. S. 489, 7 Sn1). (St. 532, 30 L. Ed. (394; Arnold V Yniiders, 56 Ohio St. -117, 47 N. E 50. 60 Am. St. Rep. 753; Fry v. State. H Ind. 502, 30 Am. Rep. 238; Webb v. Dunn. 18 Fla. 721; Glllfliifl v. Philadelphia, 3 Will] 724, 18 L. Ed. 96.
Cozntuerce is 8. term of the iargest import. it cvuiprehends iIltEl‘(O|ll'Se for the purposes of ti.-iile in any and all its forms, inciuding the tr.-mqiortation. purchase, sale, and exchange of c-nnmodities hctwoen the citizens of our country and the citizens or subiects of other countrrs, and between the citizens of different ELIili. The power to regulate it cmhraces ali the instruments by which such commerce may l‘C0l1.ill]L’teLl. We]ton v. Missouri. 91 U. S.
5. 23 [1 Ed. 347.
Cunnierce is not limited to Iln exchange of cumuoilities only, but includes, as well, intermu-sr with foreign nations and between the Ell .2, and includes the transportation of asi~ruo:i's. Steamboat Co. v. Livingston, 3 w. (N. 1') 713: People v. Raymond. 34 Cal. 492.
The words "commerce" and “trade” are synonymous, but not identical. They are often used interchangeably; but. strictiy siuitlng, commerce relates to intercourse or ilaillugs with foreign nations. states, or politlcui communities, while trade denotes busi- ness intercourse or mutuni trafiic Within the iliiiits of a state or nation, or the buying, selling, and exchanging of articies between members of the same community. See Hook- er v. Vzindewater. 4 Denio (N. Y.) 3M. 47 Am. Dec. 258; Jacob; Wharton.
—Oomme:i-cc with foreign nations. Com- merce between citizens of the United States and citizens or subjects of foreign governments; commerce which. either immediately or at some sin e of its grozress. is extiaterritorial. U. S. V. olliday_ Wall. 409. 18 L Ed. 162: Veazie I. l\Ioni', 14 How. 573 14 L. Ed. 545: Lord v. Steamship Co. 102 U. S. 544. Z3 L. Ed. 224. ‘he same as "foreign commerce." which see mIm.—Oom.ineroo _ yiritli Indian tribes. Commerce with individuals belonging to such tifi-s. in the nature of buying. selling, and ex- cliringing commodities, without reference to the it-uill[;v_where carried on. though it he within the limits of a state. U. S. v. I-iolliday, 3 Wall 407. 18 L. Ed. 182; U. S. v. Giana. 25 I95. Cas. 424.—Domeatic commerce. Com- merce carried on wholly within the limits of the United States, as distinguished from forei,-,n_commei_'ce. lso, commerce carried on iiithin the iimits of a single stats, as distin- Klllllied from interstate commerce. Louisiiiic N. It. Co. 11. Tennessee R. R. Com'n (C. G) 19 Fed. 701.—-Foreig-n commerce. Commerce or li‘fld_e between the United States and foreign
countries. Com. v. Housatonic It. Co.. 143 Mass. 6-£56) N. E. 547; Foster v. New Orleans. 9-! 5 . 24 L. Ed. 1%. The term is some-
ti_me. d to commerce between ports of two sister states not lying on the same coast, a. y.,
New York and San Fra.ucisco.—Internn.l commerce. Such as is carried on between individuals within the some state, or between different parts of the same state. Lcliigli VaL R. Co. v. Pennsylvan' 1-15 U. S. 19:3. L‘. Sup. Ct. 806. 36 L. Ed. 6 Steamboat Co. v. Liringston, 3 Cow. (N. 1.) 713. Now more coinmonly called "intrastate" commerce.—International commerce. Commerce hetvicen states or nations entirely foreign to each other. Louisville & N. R. Co. v. Tennessee R. R. C0m’n (C. C.) 19 Fed. 701.--Intershite com- merce. Such as is carried on between different states of the Union or between points Liiiig-in difl'erent states. Sce I:»1'ri:rLs'ra'ri-: Cu|lM.E.RlIE.— Intrastate commerce. Such as is begun, carried on, and completed wholly within the iimits of a single state. Contrzisted with “interstate commerce," (q. ii.)
COMMERCLA Bl-JLLI. War contracts. Compacts entered into by helligerent nations to secure a temporary and lifllited peace. 1 Kent, Comm. 159. Contracts between nu.- tions at war, or their subjects.
COMMERCIAL. Relating to or connected with trade rind l.'i'1Ifll(E or commerce in general. U. S. v. Breed, 24 Fed. Cas. 1222; Earnshaw v. Cadwalader. 145 U. S. 238, 12 Sup. Ct. 851. 36 L. Ed. 693; Zante Currants (C. C.) 73 Fed. 189.
—Commereii:l agency. The same as 3 "mercantile" agency. In re United States Mer- cantile Reporting, etc.. Co._ 52 I-Inn. 611, 4 \T. Y. Supp. 916. See MnncAN'riLi:.—cnmmereiiil agent. An officer in the consular service of the United States, of rank inferior to ii. cunsuL Also used as equivalent to “Commer- cial hroker," see i1lIl’I1.--’CI‘.lIIllnel'ci8.l broker. One who negotiates the sale of merchandise without having the possession or control of it, being distinguished in the latter particulnr from n conmfission merchant. Adkins v. Itichiiiund. 98 Va. 91. 34 S. E. 967, 47 L. R. A. 9 Am. St. Rep. 7C6: In re Wilson, 1. . .. 349. 12 L. R. A. 624: Henderson v. Com.. '78 Va. 48'.-).—Coin:inorcia.l corporation. One engaged in commerce in the bi-oadtst sense of that term; hence inciuding a railroad company. Sweatt v. Railroad Co.. 23 Fed. Cos. 5-‘30.—C-immeroial domicile. See Donicii:.E.—Commeroin1 insurance. See IN- S1JRANCE.—Co'i:nlnel'cia.1 law. A phrase used to designate the whole body of substantive jurisprudence applicable to the rights. intercourse. and reiations of persons engaged in commerce. trade or mercantile pursuits. It is not a very seienfiiic or accurate term. As foreign com- merce is carried on by means of shipping, the term has come to be used occasionally as syn.- onymons with “maritime ii1w;" but. in strict- ness, the phrase “commercial iaw" is wider. und includes many transactions or legal questions which have nothing to do with shipping or its incidr-nts. Watson v. Tnrplcy, ow. 521. 15 L. Ed. 509: Williams v. Goid Hill \.Iin. Co. K‘. C.l 96 Fed. 464.—Commercial mark. In French law. A trademark is specially or pure- lv the mark of the mantifactiirer or producer of the article, while a ‘‘commercial mark is that of the dealer or merchant who distrihiites the product to consumers or tile trade.
Repubiiquc Frangaise v. Schultz (C. C.) 57 Fed. 41.—Commercia1 paper. The term “commercial paper” means bills of exchange. promissory notes. bank-checks, and other ne- gotiable instruments for the payment of monev. which, by their form and on their face, purport to he such instruments us are, by the law- mercliiint. recognized as falling under the designation of "commercial paper." In re Ilcrcuies
Mut. L. Assur. Soc.. 6 Ben. 35. 12 Fed. Cas.