Page:Black's Law Dictionary (Second Edition).djvu/526

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the ditches round a city or town, for which some paid a contribution. called "f0ssag2'um." Cowell.

FOSSATUM. A dyke, ditch, or trench; 3. place inclosed by a ditch; a moat; a canal.

FOSSE-WAY, or FOSSE. One of the four aincicnt Roman ways through England. Speimnn.

FOSSELLUM. A small ditch. Cowell.

FOSTERING. An nncient. custom in Ire- land. in which persons put away their chil- dren to fosterers. Fostering was held to he a stronger alliance than blood, and the foster children participated in the fortunes of their foster fathers. Mozley 8: Whitley.

FOSTERLAND. Land given, assigned, or zilloLteil to the finding of food or rictnals for any poison or persons; as in monasteries for the monks. etc. Cowell; Blount.

POSTERLBAN. The remuneration fired for the rearing of a foster child: also the jointure of a wife. Jacob.

POUJDAR. In Hindu law. Under the Mogul goiernment a magistrate of the police over a large district, who took cognizance of all criminal matters within his jurisdiction, and sometimes was employed as receiver general of the revenues. Wharton.

—1‘ouJdzu-ry court. In Hindu law. A tri- hiimil for ndiniuisterlng criminal law.

FOUNDATION. The founding or bullding of a college or hospital. The incorporation or enilowment of a college or hospital is the foundation; and he who endows it, with land or other property is the founder. Dart- ruoiith College v. Woodward. 4 Wheat. . 4 L. Ed. (329; Seiigrnve‘s Appeal. 12¢ Pa. 302, 17 Atl. 412; Union Baptist Ass'n v. Hnnn, T Tex Civ. App. 240, 36 S. W'. 755.

FOUNDED. Based upon; arising from, growing out of, or resting upon; as in the expressions “founded in fraud," “founded on a consideration." "founded on contract," iind the like. See In re Grant Shoe Co.. 130 Fed. 881, 66 C. C. A. 78; State v. Morgan, 40 Conn. 46; Palmer v. Preston. 45 Vt. 158, 12 Am. Rep. 19]; Steele v. Hoe. 14 Adol. 8: E]. 4.31: In re Morales (D. C.) 105 Fed. 761.

POUNDER. The person who endows an eicernosynary corporation or institution, or supplies the funde for its establishment See FOUNDATION.

POUNDEROSA. Founderons; out of repair, as a road. Cro. Car. 366.

POUNDLING. A deserted or exposed in- fant; A child found without. A parent. or



guardian, its relatives being unknown. It has a settlement in the district where found. —I‘onnd]ing hospitals. Charitable institutions which exist in most countries for Liiliin care of infants forsaken by their parents. su being generally the olfspring of illegal connections. The foundling hospital act in England is the 13 Geo. II. c 29

FOUR. Fr. in old French law. An oven or bake-house. Four bmial, an oven, owned by the seignior of the estate, to which the tenants were ohiiged to bring their hreud for baking. Also the proprietary right no maintain such an oven.

FOUR CORNERS. The face of a written instrument. That which is contained on the face of a deed (without any aid from the knowledge of the circumstances under which it is made) is siiiil to be within its four corners. iiec.iuse every deed is still supposed to he written on one entire skin, and so to have but four corners.

To look at the four corners of an instru- ment ls to examine the whole of it, so as to construe it as a whole, without. reference to iiny one part more than another. 2 Smith. Lead. Gas. 205.

POUR SEAS. The seas surrounding England. These were divided into the Western, including the Scotch and lrish; the Northern, or North sea; the Eastern, being the German ocean: the Southern, being the British channel.

POURCHER. Fr. To fork. This was: method of delaying an action anciently resorted to by defendants when two of them were joined in the suit. Instead of appearing together. each would appear in turn and cast an essoin for the other, thus postponing the trial.

FOURIERISM. A form of socialism. See 1 Mill. P01. EC. 260.

POWLS OF WARREN. Such towls as are preserved under the game laws in warrens, According to Manwood, these nre partridges und pheasants. According to Coke, they are partridges. ralls, quiiils, wood- cocks. pheasants, mallards, and herons. Co. Litt. 233.

l‘0X'S LIBEL ACT. In English law. This was the statute 52 Geo. III. c. 00, which secured to juries. upon the trial of indict- ments for libel, the right, of pronouncing a general verdict of guilty or not guilty upon the whole matter in issue, and no longer bound them to find zi verdict of guilty on proof of the publication of the paper charged to be a libel, and of the sense ascribed to it in the indictment. Wharton.

FOY. L. Fr. Faith; allegiance: fidelity.

FR. A Latin abbreviation for “fragmentum," a fragment. used in citations to the