Page:Black's Law Dictionary (Second Edition).djvu/557

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the death of the lord. 1 Strange, 651; 1 Crabb, Real Prop. 13. 615, § 778. Called sJso “grassum.," and "yrosso1ne.”

GRETNA GREEN MARRIAGE. A nurriage celebiated at Gretna, in Dumfries, (bordering on the county of Cumber1and in Scotland. By the law of Scotland a valid mnr1l.1,,e may be contracted by consent alone, without any other formality. When the marrh,;e act (26 Geo. II. c. 33) rendered the pub- li(-Ition of bann, or a license, necessary in El; and, it became usual for persons who wished to marry clandestinely to go to Gretna Green, the nearest part of Scotland, and marry according to the Scotch law; so a sort of chapel was built at Gretna Green, in \\ hich the [English marriage service was perloxmed by the village blacksmith. Wharton.

GREVA. In old records. The sea shore. sand, or beach. 2 Mon. Angl. 625; CowelL

GRIEVED. Aggrieved. 3E£1Et.Z.

GRITH. In Saxon law. Peace; protection. —Grithb1-ech. Breach of the king's peace, as

opposed to frithbrech, a breach of the nation's peace with other nat_ions.—Grithstole. A seat, chair, or place of peace; a sanctuary; in stone uirhin a church-gate, to which an offender might flee.

GROAT. An English silver coin (value four pence) issued from the fourteenth to the seventeenth century. See Reg. v. Gonnell. 1 Car. & K. 191.

GROCEE. In old English law. A mer- chant or trader who engrossed all vendihie

merchandise; an engrosser. St. 37 Edw. III. C. 5. See Eivenossns. GEOG-SHOP. A liquor saloon, bar-

room, or dram-shop; a place where intoxicating liquor is sold to be drunk on the premises. See Leesburg v. Putnam, 103 Ga. 110, 29 S. E. 602.

GRONNA. In old records. A deep hollow or pit: a hog or miry place. Cowell.

GROOM OF THE STOLE. In England. An officer of the royal household, who has charce of the king's wardrobe.

G-ROOM PORTER. Formerly an officer lnelouguxg to the royal household. Jacob.

GROSS. Great; culpable. Generai. Ab- solute or entire. A thing in gross exists in its own right, and not as an appendage to another thing.

As to gross "Adventure,” “Average," “Earnings," “Fault,” “Negligeuce," and "Weight," see those titles.

GROSSE AVANTURE. Fr. In French marine law. The contract of bottomry. Ord. Mar. 11v. 3, tlt. 5.


GROSSEMENT. L. Fr. Largely, great- ly. Grossemem: emeint, big with child._ Plowd. 76.


GROSSOIVE. In old English law. A fine, or sum of money paid for a lease. Piowd. 270, 271. Supposed to be a corruption of gens-uma, (q. 1:.) See Gunssnns.

GROUND. 1. Soil; earth: a portion of the earth's surface appropriated to private use and under cuitivation or susceptible of cultivation.

Though this term is sometimes used in con- veyances and in statutes as equivalent to land, it is properly of a more limited signification, because ‘t applies strictly only to the surface. while ‘ ml‘ includes everything beneath the surface, and because "ground" always means dry land, whereas “laud" may and often does include the beds of iakes and streams and other surfaces under water. See Wood v. Carter, 70 1iL A11 . 213; State v. Jersey City, 25 N. £3: Com. v. Roxhury, 9 Gray (Mass.)

—Gronnd annual. In Scotch law. An annual rent of two kinds: First, the fen duties payable to the lords of erection and their successors; second, the rents reserved for building lots in a city, where rub-feus are prohibited. This rent is in the nature of a perpetual annuity. Bell: Eislc. Inst. 11. 3. 5'3.—G1-onnd landlord. The grontor of an estate on which a ground-rent ‘m r4-served.—Gx-ound-rent. A perpetual rent reserved to hlrascif and his heirs, by the grnntor of land in fee-simple. out of the land conveyed. It IS in the nature of an emphyteutic rent. Also, in English law, rent paid on a buildi U lease. See Hart v. Anderson, 193 Pa. 48 Atl. G36; Sturgeon v. Ely, 6 Pa. 406 Franciscus v. Reigart, 4 Watts. (Pa.) 11f‘y ,

2. A foundation or basis.

—G1-ound of action. The basis of a suit- H the foundation or fundamental state of facts on which an action rests: the real ohject of the plaintiff in bringing his suit. Nash v. Adams. 24 Conn. 3!): Appeal of Huntington. 73 Conn. 592, 48 Ati. 7GG—Ground writ. By the En ‘ish common-law procedure act, 1852, c. 121. it shall not be necessary to issue any writ directed to the sherifl‘ of the county in which the venue is laid, but writs of execution may issue at once into any cnuntv, and be directed to and executed by the shenff of any county, whether a county palatine or not, without reference to the county in which the venue J

is laid, and without any suggestion of the issuing of a prior writ into such county." Before this enactment. s cm. so, or IE. fa. could. not be issued into a county different from that in which the venue in the action was laid, without first issuing a writ. called a "ground writ." into the latter county, and then another writ, which was called a “textatum- writ." into the K

former. The above enactment abolished thls useiess process. Wharton. GROITNDAGE.}} A custom or tribute

paid for the standing of shipping in port. Jacob. L

GROWING CROP. A crop must be considered and treated as a growing crop from the time the seed is deposited in the ground, as at that time the seed loses the qualities

of a chattel, and becomes a part of the free- M