Page:Black's Law Dictionary (Second Edition).djvu/642

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INSANITY

it denotes a cloudin or weakening of the mind, not inconsistent with some measure of memory, reason, and judgment. But the term, in this sense, does not convey any very definite meaning. since it may range from mere feeble—mindedncss to almost the last stages of imhecility. Slate v. Jones. 50 N. H. 383, 9 Am. Rep. 242; Appeal of Dunham. 27 Conn. 205.—Recurrent insanity. Insanity which returns from time to time, hence equivalent to “lunaqv" (see nupm) in its common-iaw sense, as a mental disorder broken by lucid intervals. There is no presumption that litful and exceptional attacks of insinity are continuous. Leache v. State. 22 Tex. App. 27‘), 3 S. v. 35, 53 Am Rep. t‘>3S.— Moral insanity. A morbid perversion of the feelings, affections, or propensities, but without any illusions or url of the I1

faculties; irresistible impuise or an incapacity to resist the prompt‘ of the passions. though It compnnied by the power of discerning the moral or immoral character of the act. Moral in_sanity is not admitted as I1 bar to civil or criminal responsibility for the patient’s acts, un- less there is also shown to be intellectual disturbance, as manife. ’ by insane delusions or the other recognized criteria of legal ~ani . Leache v. State. 22 Tex. App. 279. 3 S. ‘V. 539,

Am. Rep. ; In re Forn.inn's “"ill. M Barb. (N. Y.) 291; State v. Lechman, 2 S. D. 171 49 N. W. 3. he term "emotional in-

sanity" or mania transitoria applies to the

case of one in the possession of his ordinary A insonins: faculties who allows his passions to coniert him into a tei.upoiai_r maniac. Mutual L. Ins. Co. v. Terry. 1.\ Wnll. SS0, 583, 2i L. Ed. 23li.-Psychnrieuz-osis. Mental disease viithout recognizable anatomical lesion, and witiiout evidence and history of preceding chron- ic mental degeneration. Under this head come 1neIizm.huliu,. mania. primary acute dementia, and ma-nia hall.iI.cimz2oria.. Cent. Dirt. "Neuro- sis." in its broadest sense, may include any dis- disorder of the mind, and hence all the forms of ns-inity pt-oi er. But the term “pav- rhoneurosis" is now employed by Freud and other European specialists to describe that class of exaggerated individual pecuiiarities or idiosycnrasies of thought toviards special objects or topics which are absent from the crfcctly normal mind, and which yet have so little intluence upon the patient’: conduct or his general modes of thought that they cannot properly be desi ribed as “insanity” or as any form of “mania," especially because ordinariiy unaccompanied by any kind of delusions. At most, they lie on the debilable border-land between sanitv and lnsnnity. These idi synrrasies or obsi- *' arise from superstition. from It real incident in the pntient's past history upon which he has lirooileil until it has assumed an unreal importanco or siemficance, or from general neurasthenic conditions. Such, for example, are a terrilicd shrinking from certain kinds of animals, unreasonable dread of being shut up in some enz-lnwl place or of being alone in a crowd, excessive fear of being poisoned, groundless con- viction of irredeemable sinfulness, and counlless other prepossessions, whicii may range from mere weiik minded superstition to actual mono- —Knt:a.toriis.. A foim of insanity disied by periods of acute mania and melan- Liltlilfl and especially by calalcptic states or conditr ns; the “insanity of rigidil,V-" (Kahl- banm.) A type of insanity cliarar-terized particularly by "stereotypism," an instinctive icnliuatiou to purposeless repetition of the same expressions of the wil and "ne,!ntivism," a senseless rezistance a (Krncpcli French name for circular insanity or nuniai'al-


depressive insanity.—-General paralysis. Dc- nicntia poralylica, or parcsis. Amentin, dementia, and mania. The

1-lassillcutiou of insanity into thise ibree types or forms. though once common, has of late given

634

INSANITY

way to a more scientific nomenclature, based chiefly on the origin or ciiiise of the disease in the particular patient nnd its clinical history. These terms. however are stili occasionally ecnountered in medium] jurisprudence, and the names of some of their subdivisions are in constant use.

Anientia. A total lack of intelligence. reason, or mental capacity. Sometimes so used as to cover il.1]ilECiiit_\ or dotagc, or even as applicable to all forms of insanity; but properly restricted to a lack of mental capscit due to original defective organization of t e brain (idiocy) or arrested cerebral de\'t-loptnent, as distinguished from the degeneration of intellectual faculties which once were normal.

1'‘ ‘in A form of insanity resulting from do or disorder of the brain (ideo- pathic or traumatic, but not congenital) ‘ind characterized by general mental weakness and decrepitude, foiggetfulni-ss, loss of coherence, and total inability to rcnson, but not accompanied by delusions or uncontrollable imllulscs. Pyott v. Pyott, 90 Ill. App. 221; Hill r. Unger, 2 Abb. U. S. 510, Fed. Cas. No. 5,949; Dennctt v. Dennett, 44 N. H. . , 84 Am. Dec. i)7', Peopie v. Lake, 2 Piirker. (‘r. R. (N. Y.) 218. By some writers dementia is classed as a (crininai stage of various forms of insanity, and hence may follow mania, for example, as its final condition. Among the sub-divisions of dementia should be noticed the following: Amie primilry dementia is a form of tcmporary du- mentia. though often e.\'trenie in its intensity. and occurring; in young people or adolescents. accompanied by general ]Ih_\'S'lC"li dehili r ex- haustion and induced by conditions y to produce that state, as malnutrition, overwork. dissipation, or too rapid growth. Denu-nti'o pm-— ralyti'.ca is a pro3;,'ressive form of insanity, be- ginning with slight degeneration of the ph_\ siczil intellectual, and morii powers, and leading to complete loss of mentality, or imhccility, with izcneral paralysis. Also (‘ullcd paresis. paretic dementia, or cirrhosis of the brain, or (pnpular- ly) "softening: of the brain." Tjcnicntia. prricaz. A term applicable either to the early stages of dementia or to the dementia of adolescence, but more commonly applied to the latter. It is often (but not invsrinhly) attiihutable to (inan- ism or self-abuse, and is clitiractcrized by mental and moral stiipiditr, absence of any strong feeling of the impressions of life or interest in i ‘ events. blunting or obscuration of the moril sense, weakni-ss of juiliznicnt, fii__'iIiil..\eSS of thought, senseless lauehte without mirth. mito- m-itic obedience, and apathetic ilcspoudcnr-v (Kr.-iepelin.) Sen-its dimicntia. Dementia occurring: in persons of advanced ngc, and characterized by slowness and wealiness of the mental processes and general physical degeneration. verging on or passing into imhecility, indi t in the breaking down of the mental poncis n adgvnnce of bodily dcciiv. 1'-lintt r. Shull. 3|} W. Va. 5f‘J‘.. ‘J5 S. E. 146: Pvott v. Pyott. 191 lll. 2S0. lil N. E. RS: McDaniel v. M(‘(‘n_\'. 63 Mich. 332. 33 N. W. S-1; Ilamon v. Hamon. 1R0 Mo. 79 S. W. 4%. Ton-ic dementia. Weakness of mind or feeble cerebral activity, approaching imhecility. resulting from contin- ued administration or use of sl w poisons or of the mere active poisons in repeated small doses. as in cases of lead poisoning and in some cases of addiction to such drugs as opium or alcohol.

Mania. That form of insanity in wbilh ilw patient is subject to hallucinations and illusion accompanied by a high state of general lJ1€Ili"'l crcitement. somctimes nmoiinting to furv. See Tlsll v. Unger, 2 Abb. U. S. 510, 11 Fed. Gas 261.: Pcopie v. Luke. 2 Parker Cr. R. (V. Y] 213: Smith v. Smith, 47 Miss. 21]: In re Gaunon’s Will. ‘.2 Misc. Rep. 329. 21 Y. Supp. 960. In the case first above cited, the f0li0\'.iIl,': description is given by Justice I"i-Ill‘. "Mania is that form of insanity where the men-


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