Page:Black's Law Dictionary (Second Edition).djvu/669

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JANITOR

JANITOR. In old English law. A dour-keeper. Fleta. l.ib. 2, c. 24.

In modern law. A janitor is understood to its a person cmpioyed to take charge of rooms or buildings. to see thnt they are kept clean uud in order. to lock and unlock them, and gcnernlly to care for them. Fagan v. New York, 84 N. Y. 352.

JAQUI-IS. In old Eugiish law. Small money. JAVI-:LIIN—M]-1N. Yeouien retained by

the sheriff to escort the Judge of assize.

JAVELOUR. ln Scotch law. Jader or gaolcr. 1 Pitc. Crim Tr. pt. I, p. 33.

JEDBURGH JUSTICE. Suiuiuary jl1stice iuflicted upon a marauder or felon without a rcgular trial. equivalent to "lynch inn " So called from :1 scotch town. near the Tlngiish border, where rainlers and cattle lifters were often summarily hung. Also written “Je(ldart“ or “Jedwood" justice. JEMAN. In old records. Yeoman. Cow- ell. Blount.

JI-IOFAILE. L. F1‘. I have failed; I am in error. An error or oversight in plead- iug.

Certain statutes are called “statutes of amendments and jeotallcs" because, where n pleader perceives any slip in the form of his proceedings, and acknowledges the error, (jcotolie.) he is at liberty. ‘by those statutes, to amend it. The amendment. however, is seldom made; but the benefit is attained by the court‘s overlooking the exception. 3 Bl. Comm. 407 : 1 Sound. p. 228, no. 1.

Jeofalle is when the parties to any suit in pleading have proceeded so far that they have joined issue which shall be tried or is tried by a jury or inquest, and this pleading or issue is so hndiy pleaded or joined that it will be error if they proceed. Then some of the said parties may, by ilucir counsel. show it to the court, as well after verdict givcu and before judgment as before the jury is clnrgod. And the counsel shall say: “This inquest ye ought not to take.’ And if it be after verdict, then he may sa,r- To Judgment you ought not to go." And. bc-cause such niceties occasioned many rlolays in suits. divers statutes are made to redress them. Termes de in Icy.

JEOPARDY. Danger; hazard; perii.

Jeopardy is the danger of conviction and punishment which the defendant in a criminal action incurs when a valid indictment has been found, and a petit Jury has been lmpuneled uud svlorn to try the case nud .'.'I\c a \(‘,1‘(IlCl‘.. State v. Nelson. 26 Ind. 369: State v. l7}mel',V. 59 Vt. 544. 7 Atl. 129; People v. Terrill. 132 Cal. 497, 64 Pac. S04; Mitchell v. State. 42 Ohio St. 333: Grogan v. State. 44 Ala 9; Ex parte Glenn (C. C.) 111 Fed. 258: Alexander v. Com., 10.3 Po. 9.

JERGIJI-IR. In English law. An officer of the custom-house who oversees the waiters. Techn. Dict.

G61

JOCALIA

JESSE. A large brass candlestick, usu- ally hung in the middle of a church or choir. Cowell.

IE1‘. Fr. In French law. Jettison. Ord. Mar. liv. S, tit. S; Emerig. Trnité des Assur. c. 12. § 40.

JETSAM. A term descriptive of goods which, by the act of the owner, have been voluntarily cast overboard from a vessel, in a storm or other emergency, to lighten the ship. 1 C. B. 113.

Jetsam is where goods are cast into the sea, and there sink und remain under water. 1 Bl Comm. 202.

Jetsam differs from “fiotszun,"_ in this: (but in the latter the goods iioat, wbiie in the former they sink, and remain under water. it diilers also from “ligan."

JETTISON. The act of throwing over- board from a vessei part of the cargo, in case of extreme danger, to lighten the Sh]D. The same name is also given to the thing or things so cast out. Gray v. Waln, 2 Serg. at: R. (Pa) 254, 7 Am. Dec. 642; Butler v. Wildmnn. 3 Barn. &-. Ald. 326; Barnard v. Adams, 10 How. 303, 13 L. Ed. 417.

A carrier by water may, when in case of extreme peril it is necessary for the safety of the ship or cargo, throw overboard, or otherwise sacrifice, any or all of the cargo or appurtenances of the ship. Throwing property overboard for such purpose is call- ed “jettison," and the loss incurred thereby is called a “general svcrage loss." Civil Code Cal. § 2148; Civil Code Dak. § 12-J5.

JEUX DE BOURSE. Fr. In French law. Speculation in the public funds or in stock gambling speculations on the stock e

change; dealings in “options" and “futures." JEWEL. By “jewels“ are meant orna-

ments of the person, such as e'1r-rings, pearls. diamonds. etc., which are prepared to be worn. See Com. v. Stephens, 14 Pick. (l\iuss.) 373: Robbins v. Robertson (0. C.) 33 Fed. 710; Cavendish v. Cavendish, 1 Brown Ch. 409; Ramaley v. Leland. 43 N. Y. 541, 3 Am. Rep. 728: Gile v. Libby, 80 Barb. (N. Y.) 77.

JOB. The whole of a thing which is to be done "To bulid by plot, or to work by the job. is to undertake a building for u ccrtain stipulated price." Civ. Code Ls. art. 2727.

JOBBER. One who buys and sells goods for others: one who buys or sells on the stock ex hange; a dealer in stocks, shares. or securities.

JOCALIA. In old English law. Jenels.

This term was formerly more properly applied to those ornaments which women, al-