Page:Black's Law Dictionary (Second Edition).djvu/735

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officers, who are subordinate to others, and especially where the duties and powers of the higher officer uiay, in certain contingecnies. devolve upon the lower; as lieutenant gun.-i-nor, lieutenant colonel, etc. See infra.

3. in the army, a lieutenant is a com- missioned oifieer, ranking next below a captnin. In the United States navy, he is an ollicer whose rank is intermediate between that of an ensign and that of a lieutenant cuinmiindcr. in the British navy, his rank is next below that of a commander.

—Lieutenant colonel. An otlirer of the army whose rank is above that of a major and below that of a colonel.—Lieutenant commander. A commissioned oiliccr of the United States navy, whose rank is above that of iieutenant and below that of cominander.—I.ientenant general. Au nflicer in the army, whose rank is above that of major general and below that of “general of the army.” In the United States, this rank is not permanent, being usually created for speciai persons or in times of war.- Lieutenant governor. In English law. A deputy-governor, acting as the chief ciiil officer of one of severni colonies under a governor general. “Febstor. in American law. An officer of a state, sometimes charged with special (inties, but chiefly important as the deputy or substitute of the governor, acting: in the place of the governor upon the iatter’s death, resignation, or disability.

LIFE. That state of animals and plants or of an organized being, in which its natu- rnl functions and motions are performed. or in which its organs are capable or performing their functions. Webster.

The sum of the forces by which death is resisted. Birliat.

—Life-annuity. An engagement to pay an icnome veariy during the life of some person: also the sum thus promised. Life-estate. An estate whose duration is limited to the Life of the party holding it, or of some other person; a freehold estate. not of iuheiitance. Williams V. Ratciitf 42 Miss. 15-}; Civ. Code Ga. 1895, 5 — ife in being. A phrase used in the common-law and statutory rules against perpotuities, meaning the remaining duration of the life of a person who is in existence at the time Mien the deed or will takes effect. See Me- Arthiir v. Scott. 113 U. S. 340, 5 Sup. Ct G32. 39 L. Ed. 101' —Life insurance. See INSUR- ,\Ncl-‘.—Life-inter-eat. -\ claim or interest. not nmouiifi.n¢: to ownership, and limited by a term of life. either that of the p(‘l’S0l] in whom the right is vcsted or that of :iriother.—Life- land or Li.fe—]iolrl. Land held on a ieiise for liv —Life of a writ. The period during wliich a writ (execution, etc.) remains cfiective and can lawfully be served or levied, terminating with the day on which, by law or by its l’IWI’l terms, it is to be returned into rourt.— Life peerage. Letters patent. conferring the dignity of baron for life only. do not enable the grantee to sit and vote in the house of lords. not even with the usual writ of summons to the house. Wliarton.—Life policy. A policy of life insurance; a policy of insurance upon the iife of an individii.-il.—Life-rent. In Scotch law. An estate for life; a r1_:ht to the use and enjoyment of an estate or thing for one’: life. but without destruction of its substance, They are either legal. such as terce and cnrtesy, (q. v.,) or cowvcntianal. i. r-.. created by art of the parties. ' '

Conventionai life-rents are either smi- ple, where the owner of an estate grants a life- interest to another, or by reservation, where the ovsner, in convey ing away the fee, reserves



B, life-estate to liirnself.—Life-renter. In Scotch law. A tenant for life without waste. Bell.—Life tenant. One who hoids an estate in lands for the period of his own life or that of another certain person.—Natnr-nl life. The period of a person's existence considered as continuing until terminated by physical dissolution or death occurring in the course of nature; used iii colltradistinction to that juristic and artifidal f.‘DElI.l3[JfiC|ll of life as an a.~:gregiite of legal rights or the possession of a legal persnnaii , which could be terminated by “civil death." that is. that extinction of persouaiity which resulted from entering a monastery or being attaintcd of treason or felony. See People v. Wfight. S9 Mich. T0. 50 N. W. T92.

LIFT. To raise; to take up. To "lift" a promissory note is to discharge its obligation by paying its amount or substituting another evidence of debt. To “lift the bar" of the statute of limitations, or of an estnmicl. is to remove the obstruction which it interposes, by some sulficient act or acknowl- edgiiient.

LIGA. In old European law. or confederation. Spelmnn.

A league

LIGAN, LAGAN. Goods cast into the sea tied to a buoy, so that they may be found again by the owners, are so denomi- nated. When goods are cast into the sea in storms or shipwrecks, and remain there, without coming to land, they are distinguished by the barbarous names of “jetsam," "flotsam," and “lig:in." 5 Coke, 108; Earg. State Tr. -18: 1 Bl. Comm. 292.

LIGARE. To tie or bind. Bract. fol. 36912.

To enter into a league or treaty. IlJB.Il.


LIGEA. In old English law. A liege- woman; a female subject. Reg. Orig. 31212.

LIGEANGE. Allegiance; the faithful obedience of a subject to his sovereign, of a citizen to his government. Also. derivative- ly, the territory of a state or sovereignty. LIGEANTIA. Iflt. alie- giauce

Ligeance ;

Ligeantia est quasi legis essentla; est vlneulum firlel. Co. Litt. 129. Allegiance is, as it were, the essence of law; it is the chain of faith.

Ligeantia natnrnlis nnllis clanstris coeroetur, nullis metis ref:-aanatnr, nullis finibns preniitur. 7 Coke, 10. Natural allegiance is restrained by no barriers, reined by no bounds, compressed by no limits.

LIGEAS. In old records. A liege. LIGHT. A window, or opening in the wall for the admission of lmht. Also a privilege or easement to have light admitted

into one‘s building by the openings made for