Page:Black's Law Dictionary (Second Edition).djvu/813

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luus" bnrnuse :1 knowledge of them may be nt- laiued merely by the light of reason. from the of their essential ngreeablencss with the Qublltullou of humnn nature; vxhile, on the vnrary, positive or _resenled inws are not under] upon the general constitution of bu- mun nature, but only upon the will of God; uulgzl in other respects such low is established 3 very gimd reason, and procures the ad- ue of those to whom it is sent. The cere- ilhfrliul or political laws of the Jews are of this iunr class. Borden v. Stute, 11 Ark. 627, 44 ALI]. Dec 9 "


Naturals out quidlibet dieaolv-i en mode qno ligiitnr. it is u.itu|:ul for :3 thing to be unbound in the some way in which it was bound. Jenk. Oent. G6; Broom, Max. 871'.

NATURAL]-:zA. In Spnnish law. The slate of a nnturnl-horn subject. White, New lit-‘~11 b. 1, tit. 53, C. 2.

NATURALIZATION. The act of adopting an nilen into A nation, and clothing him with all the rights possessed by :1 naturaliurn citizen. Boyd v. Nebraska, 1433 U. S. 135, 12 Sup. Ct’. 375. 36 L. Ed. 103.

Collective naturalization takes pince “here a government, by treaty or cession, er.- |,l|ll'(:S the vlhole or part of the territory of & l--n-ign notion nnd bikes to itself the inh:ihit- aiia thereof, clothing them with the rights of uiizensbip either by the terms of the treaty or by subsequent legislation. State v. Boyd. 31 .\elI. 6&1. Q N. W. 739; People v. Board of as-pectors. 9 ‘ " Supp.

.. Misc Rep. 554. (J! N. Y. I5: 0lJinion of Justices, 68 Me. 689.

NATURALIZE. To confer citizenship upon nn ahen; to make u foreigner the slime, in respect to rights und privileges, as if he were a native citizen or subject.

NATURALIZED CITIZEN. One who, being an alien by birth, has received citizenship under the laws of the state or nation.

NATURALLY. Dzimuges which "natur1ii_v" arise from a breach of contract are such us arise in the usnal course of things, from the breach itself, or such as may rensnu-ihly he supposed to have been contempl-ited by the parties when making the conts-ict as the probable result of the breach. Mitchell v. Clarke. 71 Cal. 104, 11 Pac. 882, (in Am Rep. 529.

NATUS. Lat. Born, as distinguished fruni nosciturus, about to be born. Ante name, one born before a particular person or --w ‘t, L. g.. before the dc-ith of his father. Ixcfore a political revolution, etc. Port mums, one born after a particular person or event.

NAUCLERUS. Lat In the civil law. The master or owner of a merchant vesseL Calvin.

NAUFRAGE. In French maritime law. Shipwreck. "The violent ngltiition of the waves, the impetuous force of the winds, storm, or lightning, may swallow up the ves-



sel, or shatter it. in such a manner that nothing remains of it but the wreck; this is called ‘making shipwreck,’ (faire mzufnzye.) The vessel may also strike or run aground upon a bank, where it remains grounded. which is called ‘échaucmmit;' it may he dashed against the coast or a rock, which is called ‘Im's;' an at-udent of any kind may sink it in the sea, where it is swallowed up. which is called 'sombrer.'" 3 Pard Droit Cominer. 5 (H3.

NAUFRAGIUM. Lat Shipwreck.

NAUGI-IT. In old practice. Bnd; defective “The bar is mzuyht." 1 Leon. 77. “The zivowry is naught." 5 Mod. 73. “The plea is undoubtedly mmgltt." 10 Mod. 329. See 11 Mod. 179.

NAULAG . The freight of passengers in a ship. Johnson; Webster.

NAULUM. In the civil law. The freight or fare paid for the trzinsportntion of cargo or passengers over the sea in a vessel. This is.a Lntinized form of B Greek word.

NAUTA. Lat. In the civil nnd maritime law. A sailor; one who works a ship. Cal- vin.

Any one who is on board a ship for the purpose of navigating her.

The employer of I1 ship. Dig. -1, 9, 1, 2.

NAUTICAL. Pertaining to ships or to

the nrt of navigation or the business of carriage by sea. —Na.uticnl assessors. Experienced shipmosters, or other persons having special knowledge of navigation and nautical affairs, who are call- ed to the nssistance of a. court of ndmiraity, in dificnlt cases involving questions of negligence, and who sit with Ihe judge during the argument, and give their advice upon questions of senmanship or the weight of testimony. The Empire (D. C.) 19 Fed. 559; The Clement, 2 Curt. 369, Fed. Cos. No. 2,E79.—Nnutica! mile. See MILE.

NAUTICUM FCENUS. Lat. In the civil law. Nautical or maritime interest: an extraordinary rate of interest agreed to be paid for the loan of money on the hazard of a voy- age; corresponding to interest on contracts of hottomry or respondcntin in English and

\[llEl'll Ill mu-itime l-i\\. Sec Mackcld Rom. Law, 5 433: 2 Bl. Comm. 453.

NAVAGIUM. In old English law. A duty on certain tenants to carry their lord's goods in a ship.

NAVAL. Appertalning [O the navy, (q. 1:.)

— courts. Courts held abroad in certain cases to inquire into compinints by the master or seamen of a British ship. nr as to the wreck or abandonment of a British ship. A: naval court consists of three, four, or live members. being officers in her majesty's navy, consular officers, mnsters of British merchant

ships, or British merchants. It has power to