assembled 500,000, then 800,000, then 2 1/2 million men. It obtained an armed crowd. It did not have, for a long time at least, the army that was gradually to develop during the war itself by dint of perseverance and energy.
In the South, contrary-wise, from the very beginning the effort was general and one could feel that the entire population was participating in it. Besides, if it was rather difficult to instill militarization more rapidly in the commercial and industrial population of the North, there was less to do to transform into soldiers the rugged planters of Virginia or those of Georgia and Alabama, incessantly riding over their immense savannahs ; or again the rugged pioneers of Texas, seasoned by their constant fights against the Indians.
Finally, the majority of officers trained at West Point happened to belong, by their birth, to the Southern states. They gathered under the flag of their native land and brought the new Confederation precious elements of knowledge and method. The first shot was fired April 12th, 1861, against Fort Sumter. A few military engagements followed, but of mediocre importance.
Then, at the end of July, took place the great Battle of Bull Run near Manassas. Attacked by 36,000 Confederates, the Northern army, counting 55,000, scattered after a few hours of fighting, as if taken by a