Page:Canterbury Papers.djvu/34

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tered over the plain; but we believe that you wish to be able to select a block of 1,000,000, in such a form as to exclude a large portion of the spots mentioned.

4th. 'As to crops on bush land.'

Our opinion is, that the greatest part of the plain was covered with timber at no distant period, and that the bush land is not superior to the open land in any respect. We mean, that suppose a clump of timber was cut down and carried from the land, that the ground whereon that bush grew would not produce a larger crop than an equal extent of the land adjacent to it, which had been covered with timber at some not very remote period; but if the timber was burned on the land, it might produce a better crop the first year than open land.

5th. 'As to farming implements to be brought out, also the best kind of stock, as to bulls, cows, rams, ewes, and horses, to be imported.'

The farming implements to be brought out ought to be pretty much the same as those in use in England; but cart wheels and other bulky farming implements can be got from New South Wales cheaper and better than they can be brought from England. Horses would be generally used in preference to bullocks for agricultural purposes, and their harness should be lighter and smaller than that generally in use in England. With each emigrant vessel, a good Durham cow ought to be sent by the Association, and a few pure-bred Durham bulls should be likewise sent within the first year after the settlement is started; these might be sold by public auction to the settlers, with a certainty of their producing a profit above first cost, freight, insurance, and every other expense; and there is no doubt they would very much improve the breed of cattle from New South Wales, and confer a great benefit on the settlers. As there is a very extensive grazing district in this neighbourhood, and as the salting of beef of a superior quality for export will doubtless prove a profitable speculation, we would strongly advise that a few bulls of the Galloway breed should be sent out from time to time, and sold in the same manner as the others. We believe that there is no breed in England to equal the Galloway for beef—the best of the breed can be purchased in Galloway for an inconsiderable sum, and would be peculiarly suited to the natural pasturage of this country; and we feel assured that beef of that breed could be salted here superior to any sent to England from any other quarter. We ourselves would be glad to purchase a bull or two of that breed, at a price that would yield a considerable profit after paying first cost, freight, &c. Beyond a very few South Down rams, to improve the quality of the mutton of the colonial sheep, we would not advise that any rams should be imported, as fine-wooled sheep can be got from New South Wales superior to any in England. A few good draught horses should likewise be sent, of the Clydesdale, Suffolk Punch, or Cleveland breed, and sold in the same manner as the cattle. The breeding of thorough-bred horses for the Indian market would likewise prove a good speculation. You are aware that a good many of these are annually sent from New South Wales to that country, where they are bought at high prices; and we have it from one of the most extensive and successful breeders there, that, owing to the uncertainty of the seasons, the young horses there are frequently so starved as never to arrive at a good size, and their feet are apt to get out of order, which detracts very much from their value. As neither of these would happen here, there is little doubt that the breeding of thorough-bred horses for the Indian market would prove very beneficial to the settlement: and the Association would therefore contribute much to its prosperity if they were to send out a few stallions of good blood; but perhaps the settlement should first be started some time before sending them. From the facility with which immense quantities of wheat can be grown, it is of the utmost importance that mills, or the materials for mills, with thrashing-power attached, should accompany the first settlers: one water and one windmill would probably be sufficient at first. We would likewise recommend the settlers to bring seeds of the different varieties of English trees and hawthorn.

6th. 'How stock thrive on plains—sheep, percentage of lambs yet obtained—weight of carcass, wool, &c. Quantity of stock at your station.'

All kinds of stock thrive amazingly. Cattle and sheep are fit for the butcher at all seasons; and they are never housed, either winter or summer. A married