Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/191

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from Rome to Venice. He never appeared in Rome again. He had previously been deprived of his office of collector of Peter's-pence, and on 5 July, 1518, was degraded from the cardinalate and his Bishopric of Bath given to Cardinal Wolsey. He was long associated with the scholar Polydore Vergil, who was his sub-collector of Peter's-pence in England. Among his writings are a poem in elegant Latinity, entitled "Venatio" (Aldus, 1505), and treatises, "De Verâ Philosophiâ" (Bologna, 1507; Cologne, 1548, Rome, 1775); and "De Sermone Latino et modo Latine loquendi" (Baste, 1513).

Pastor, History of the Popes, tr. Antrobus, V 144–146; VI, 56, 129, 132, 179, 281, 353, 363, 376, 380 (London, 1891–98 St. Louts, 1902); Vacant in Dict. théol, cath., s.v.; Stephens, Dict. Nat. Biog., s. v.; Polyd. Vergh., Hist. Anglic.; Hurter, Nomenclator literarius, IV, 940; Wharton, Anglica Sacra, I 576; Calendar of State Papers, Henry VII, I and II; Calendar of Venetian State Papers, I–V.

Adrianists. See Hamsted.

Adrianople, a city of Turkey in Europe. According to legend, Orestes, son of Agamemnon, built this city at the confluence of the Tonsus (Toundja) and the Ardiscus (Arda) with the Hebrus (Maritza). The Emperor Hadrian developed it, adorned it with monuments, changed its name of Orestias to Hadrianopolis, and made it the capital of the province of Hæmimont, or Thrace. Licinius was defeated there by Constantine in 323, and Valens killed by the Goths in 378. During the existence of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, Theodore, Despot of Epirus, took possession of it in 1227, and two years later was killed there by Asên, King of the Bulgarians. It was captured by Ainurat I in 1360, and it was the capital of the Turks from 1362 to 1453. It was occupied by the Russians in 1829, during the war for Grecian independence, and in 1878, in the war for Bulgarian independence. Adrianople is today the principal city of a vilayet (province) of the same name, which has about 960,000 inhabitants. It has a thriving commerce in woven stuffs, silks, carpets, and agricultural products. Adrianople contains the ruins of the ancient palace of the Sultans, and has many beautiful mosques, the most remarkable being that of Selim II, of an altogether grandiose appearance and with a cupola three or four feet higher than that of St. Sophia. The city suffered greatly in 1905, from a conflagration. It then possessed about 80,000 inhabitants, of whom 30,000 were Mussulmans. (Turks and some Albanians, Tzigani, and Circassians); 22,000 Greeks, or those speaking Greek; 10,000 Bulgarians; 4;000 Armenians; 12,000 Jews; 2,000 not classifiable. The see of a Greek metropolitan and of a Gregorian Armenian bishop, Adrianople is also the centre of a Bulgarian diocese, but it is not recognized and is deprived of a bishop. The city also has some Protestants. The Latin Catholics, foreigners for the most part, and not numerous, are dependents of the vicariate-apostolic of Constantinople. At Adrianople itself there are the parish of St. Anthony of Padua (Minors Conventual) and a school for girls conducted by the Sisters of Charity of Agram. In the suburb of Kara-Aghatch there are a church (Minor Conventuals), a school for boys (Assumptionists), and a school for girls (Oblates of the Assumption). Each of its mission stations, at Rodosto and Dédé-Aghatch, has a school (Minor Conventuals), and there is one at Gallipoli (the Assumptionists). From the standpoint of the Oriental Catholics, Adrianople is the residence of a Bulgarian vicar-apostolic for the Uniats of the vilayet (province) of Thrace and of the principality of Bulgaria. There are 4,600 of them. They have 18 parishes or missions, 6 of which are in the principality, with 20 churches or chapels, 31 priests, of whom 6 are Assumptionists and 6 are Resurrectionists; 11 schools with 670 pupils. In Adrianople itself there are only a very few United Bulgarians, with an Episcopal church of St. Elias, and the churches of St. Demetrius and Sts. Cyril and Methodius. The last is served by the Resurrectionists, who have also a college of 90 pupils. In the suburb of Kara-Aghatch, the Assumptionists have a parish and a seminary with 50 pupils. Besides the United Bulgarians, the above statistics include the Greek Catholic missions of Malgara and Daoudili, with 4 priests and 200 faithful, because from the civil point of view they belong to the Bulgarian Vicariate.

Adrichem, Christian Kruik van (Christianus Crucius Adrichomius), Catholic priest and theological writer, b. at Delft, 13 February, 1533; d. at Cologne, 20 June, 1585. He was ordained in 1566, and was Director of the Convent of St. Barbara in Delft till expelled by the storm of the Reformation. His works are: "Vita Jesu Christi" (Antwerp, 1578); "Theatrum Terræ Sanctæ et Biblicarum Historiarum" (Cologne, 1590). This last work gives a description of Palestine, of the antiquities of Jerusalem, and a chronology from Adam till the death of John the Apostle, a.d. 109.

Van Heussen and Van Rijn, Kerkelijke historie en Outheden der 10 vereen. provinc., III, 713; Beschryving der Stadt Delft, 1729, 704 sqq.; Thum in Kirchenlex.

Adrichomius. See Christian Kruik van Adrichem.

Adso, Abbot of the Cluniac monastery of Moutier-en-Der, d. 992, on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem; one of the foremost writers of the tenth century. Born of rich and noble parents, he was educated at the Abbey of Luxeuil, was called to Toul as instructor of the clergy, and made Abbot of Moutier-en-Der in 960. He was the friend of Gerbert, afterwards Silvester II, of Abbo of Fleury, and other famous men of his time. His writings include hymns, lives of saints, among them a life of St. Mansuetus, Bishop of Toul (485–509), a metrical rendering of the second book of the "Dialogues" of Gregory the Great, and a tractate "De Antichristo" in the form of a letter to Queen Gerberga, wife of Louis IV (d'Outremer). This latter work has been attributed to Rabanus Maurus, Alcuin, and even to St. Augustine, and is quoted by Döllinger among other writings of the medieval conception of Antichrist. It is printed among the works of Alcuin (P.L., CI, 1289–93). The other writings of Adso are also found in Migne (P.L., CXXXVI, 589–603).

Schrödl in Kirchenlex.; Rivet, Hist. Litt. de la France, VI. 471; Döllinger, Prophecies and the Prophetic Spirit in the Christian Era (London. 1873), 83.

Aduarte, Diego Francisco, missionary and historian, b. 1566, at Saragossa, in Spain; d. at Nueva Segovia, in the Philippines, about 1635. He was educated at the University of Alcal and entered the Dominican Order. In 1594, with other members of that Order, he sailed for the Philippines, landing at Manila in 1595. As a missionary he was conspicuous even among the heroic apostles of that period. He first devoted himself to the difficult task of catechizing the Chinese residents in the Philippines, and met with unusual success. Shortly after, he was selected as one of two Dominicans to accompany a military expedition in aid of the native ruler of Cambay. After an eventful journey of more than a year they landed in Siam, only to find that the aid arrived too late, and that they were in danger from the treachery of the natives. They then entered Cochin China for the purpose of evangelizing the heathen, but were obliged to retire before the ferocity of the natives. Several such journeys by sea and land, some extending over many months and even years, during which he suffered hunger and thirst and equatorial heats, fell to his lot during the labori-