Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/323

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ALEMBERT 283 ALESSANDRIA to Ogden, Utah, in Xovember, 1883, to meet for the first lime, to accompany thence and to welcome to San Francisco his coadjutor and successor, the Most Uev. 1'. V. Kiordan. I'Vom the first meeting and until his death the closest and tenderest friend- ship existed between them. Having aojuainted his successor fully with diocesan affairs and transferred to him as a "corporation sole" all diocesan property (according to a law which he had had piissed through tlio California legislature for the better security of church property), the Archbisliop resigned in 1884, returned to his native land, and died there. His intense love for the missionarj' life and his zeal for souls did not end with his resignation; his seventy years unfitted him for active worli of that nature, but he returned to Spain with a dream of founding a missionary college to supply priest-s for the Ameri- can missions. For this purpose he left beliind him in San Franci.sco the amount of a testimonial given him liby the priests and people of the diocese as some little recognition of his long services and the example of his saintly life among them. He stipulated that, should he not use it for that purpose, it should be expended by his successor for religious and charitable purposes in San Francisco. He receied generous support from the diocese, but found the proposed missionary college impracticable. So, on his retire- ment from thirty years of apostolic labours in Cali- fornia, he left as a legacy to the diocese the example of a true apostle, and died as an apostle sliould, possessing nothing but the merits of his "works which had gone before him ". Reuss, Biographical Encycl. of Uie Cath, Hierarchy of the V. S. (Milwaukee, Vi3., 1898); Dominicana (San Francisco, 1900-6). P. W. RionD.N. Alembert, Je. leRondd'. See Encyclopedias. Alenio, Giulio, Chinese missionary and scholar, b. at Brescia, in It.aly, in 1582; d. at Fou-Tclieou, China, in August, 1044. He became a member of the Society of .lesus in 1000, and was distinguished for his knowledge of mathematics and theology. He was sent as a missionary to China in 1610, and while waiting at .Macao a favourable oi)portunity to enter the country he published his "H(5sultat de I'observation sur I'ddipse de lune du 8 N'ovcmbre, 1612, faite iV Macao" (M6moires de F.cad. des Sciences, VU, 700). After his arrival in China, he preached the Cio.-ipel in the provinces of Xan-si and Fi-Kien. He published many works in Chinese on a variety of topics, .mong the most important are a controversial treatise on the Catholic Faith, in which are refuted the principal errors of the Chinese; "The True Origin of all Things"; and "The Life of (iod, the Saviour, from the Four Gospels". There is a complete list of .lcnio's works in Sommervogel. SoMMKKVOGEL, Biblioth^qttc tie la Compafjnic dc Ji'suM^ I, 157 »q.; Pkister. S.J.. Kibliaar. do Jt'nitiles Chinoia mu».; CoHDiER. Easai tl'unc bihliotrr. dc8 ouvr. publ, en Chiiie par tea KuroprtnH Paris. tSi>3». Joseph M. Woods. Aleppo, Archdiocese of (.Armenian Rite), in Sj'ria. The city of .-Vleppo is situated in the plain that stretches from the Orontes to the Euphrates in the northwestern extremity of the Syrian desert. It rises in the middle of an oasis on eight little hills, and is watered by the Kouik. . cient Egj'ptian records mention this town, .ccording to an .rab tradition, .Vbraham lived in it, and distributed some milk to cverj' comer, whence the town's name, Ilnkb. Seleucus Nicator (.311-280 n .c.) gave it the name of Beroea (Berrhoe) by which it was known in early Christian times. Its prc.-ient Semitic name dates from the .rab conquest in 030. It belonged to the Scljukids from 1090 to 1117; to the Orto- kids from 1117 to 11X3 (besieged by the Crusaders 1124); to the Ayoubitcs from 11S.3 to 1260 (Mongol Invasion); and to the Egj-ptian Sultans. In 1317 it passed definitively to the Ottoman Turks, except for the Egyptian occupation, 1833-39. To-day it is the chief resilience of a vilayet of the .same name. In ancient times .leppo was a commercial depot for the trade between India, the regions along the Tigris and the Euphrates, and the Mediterranean. .Vltliough it has long lost much of its importance, it still sends to .lexandria the products of Diarbekir, Mossoul, and Bagtlad. It is noted for its fertile gardens and its healthy climate. A more disagree- able peculiarity is the ulcer known as the "Alepi>o button ". The plague raged there in 1822. Its ramparts and forts have fallen into decay. Among the architectural monuments are a Roman aqueduct and a beautiful mosque of the Seljukiil ejioch. The population is about 127,000, of whom ',I7,4.')0 are M^u.ssulmans (.-Vrabs, Turks, etc.), 19,200 Catholics (Greeks, United or Melchites, Syrians, Armenians, Maronites, Chaldeans, and Latins), 2,800 non-Catho- lic Christians (mostly Gregorian Armenians), and 7,800 Jews. Four Catholic archbishops govern the Melchites, the Syrians, the .rmenians, and the Maronites. The Gregorian -Armenians are adminis- tered by a Vartabet appointed by the Catholicos of Sis. The Orthodox Greeks are very rare in the town, but quite numerous in the surrounding country. They constitute a metropolitan diocese, which sepa- rated from the Patriarchate of Antioch in 1757, and was restored to it by the Patriarchate of Constanti- nople in .ugust, 1888. In the eighteenth century the Orthodox metropolitan, Gerassimus (d. 1783, at .thos) was a stem enemy of the union with Rome. Alepjx) remains the centre of the French Catholic missions of Syria. In 1025 the Carmelites estab- lished them.selves there; somewhat later they re- tired to Mount Carmel, where they built a nionas- terj-. (They had also in the Orient other stations.) In .Aleppo they were succeeded by the Lazarists from 1785 to 1869. In 1S73 the Jesuits founded a mission at .leppo. In 1026 the Capuchins organ- ized a "Custodia" from which were directed twelve missions. Their activity was interrupted by the French Revolution and in 1808 these Capuchin missions were given to the Italian Franciscans. The latter founded a college in 1859. The Sisters of St. Jo.seph direct a boarding-school. There are also Protestant missionaries in .■Vleppo. It has 260 schools: 115 Mussulman, 116 Cnristian, and 29 Israelite. S. PferniDES. Ales and Terralba, Diocese of, made up of 42 communes in the province of Cagliari, .rclibi.shopric of Oristano, Italy. The two sees were united by Julius II in 1503*. Christianity was possibly intro- duced into Sardinia by groups of the faithful, who were condemned to work in its mines [Pliilos., IX, 12; Catal. Liber., s. v. "Pontianus"; cf. Harnack, Die Mission, etc. (Leipzig, 1902), 502]. Gregory the Great alludes to the episcopal see of Ales (anciently Uselli), in his letter to Januarius of Cagliari in 591 (JalT(r-, 1130). .fter this nothing is to be found about it until 1147, when the name of Bishop Rello appears in a diploma. The local traditions of 'lerralba have preserved the memorj' of a Bishop Mariano, who erected the cathedral about 1144. The diocese contains 42 parishes, 102 priests, 59,.530 inhabitants. CAfPELLE-m, Le chute dllatia (Venice, ISGC). XIII. 249: Cams. Series rpitcoporum Eccleaict calholict (Uatisbon, 1S7.3 8,31; VlTALE. Apparalut ad Annales Sardinia (Cagliari, 17S01; Mattii.E!. Sardinia Sacra 8cu hialoria de episcopia Snrdia (Home. 17.181; Martini, Sloria cccteaiaalica di Sardcgna (Cagliari. 1S391. Ernesto Buonaiuti. Alessandria della Paglia, Diocese of, in Pied- mont. Italy, a suffnigan of Vercelli. It was made a see in 11^5 by .Mexander III. by a Brief of 30 Jan. 1176, in which" he declares that he selects a bishop